@sevenpoints 2017-05-16T05:32:15.000000Z 字数 5477 阅读 2880

# Ithkuil翻译

人造语言

Ithkuil is an experimental constructed language created by John Quijada,
designed to express deeper levels of human cognition briefly yet overtly and clearly, particularly with regard to human categorization.

Presented as a cross between an a priori philosophical and a logical language striving to minimize the ambiguities and semantic vagueness found in natural human languages,

Ithkuil is notable for its grammatical complexity and extensive phoneme inventory,
ithkuil以其语法的高度曲折和音系的宽大著称，
the latter being simplified in the final version of the language.

The name "Ithkuil" is an anglicized form of Iţkuîl, which in the original form roughly means "hypothetical representation of a language".
Ithkuil是Iţkuîl的无附标写法，而Iţkuîl用其本身解释是“一种假想的语言”
Quijada states he did not create Ithkuil to be auxiliary or used in everyday conversations,
but rather to serve as a language for more elaborate and profound fields where more insightful thoughts are expected,such as philosophy, arts, science and politics.

The many examples from the original grammar book[2] show that a message,

like a meaningful phrase or a sentence, can usually be expressed in Ithkuil with fewer sounds, or lexically distinct speech-elements, than in natural human languages. For example, the two-word Ithkuil sentence "Tram-mļöi hhâsmařpţuktôx" can be translated into English as "On the contrary, I think it may turn out that this rugged mountain range trails off at some point".

Quijada deems his creation too complex and strictly regular a language to have developed naturally, but nonetheless a language suited to human conversation. No person, including Quijada, is known to be able to speak Ithkuil fluently.
Three versions of the language have been publicized: the initial version in 2004, a revised version called Ilaksh in 2007, and a final, definitive version in 2011.

In 2004—and again in 2009 with Ilaksh—Ithkuil was featured in the Russian-language popular science and IT magazine Computerra.

In 2008, it won the Smiley Award.
2008年，它赢得了笑脸奖。
Outline 概述
Influences

For his influences,

"morpho-phonology of Abkhaz verb complexes,

the moods of verbs of certain American Indian languages,

the aspectual system of Niger–Kordofanian languages,

the nominal case systems of Basque and Dagestanian languages,

the enclitic system of the Wakashan languages,

the positional orientation systems of Tzeltal and Guugu Yimithirr,
Tzeltal和Guugu Yimithirr的方位系統;
the Semitic triliteral root morphology,

and the hearsay and possessive categories of Suzette Elgin's Láadan language".

Ilaksh: a revision of Ithkuil Ilaksh：一個修訂版的Ithkuil（2007年）
Since the mention of Ithkuil in the Russian magazine ''Computerra'', several speakers of Russian contacted Quijada and expressed enthusiasm to learn Ithkuil, with several complaining about its difficulty in pronunciation. Quijada remade Ithkuil's morphophonology and published the revision on 10 June 2007 as Ilaksh. The innovation featured other amendments to grammar, like some additional ''Levels'' or a slight shuffling of ''noun cases''.

The Ilaksh script was redesigned. It had two forms, a sequential "informal" system suitable for handwriting or compact typesetting, and a "formal" [[logographic]] system with artistic possibilities resembling [[Maya script]]s.
Ilaksh的文字系統被重新設計，它有兩種形式：一種是僅用於手寫和要求緊湊排版是的“非正式”書寫系統；另一種則是藝術可能性類似於瑪雅文字的“正式”語素文字書寫系統。
In the "informal" writing system, several parallel sets of lines are shaped to correspond sequentially to the different parallel sets of lexemes and inflections. It is directly pronounceable. The author designed it with reserve for convenient handwriting. The overall design would permit compact, clear, black-and-white rendering.

In the colorful "formal" script, a single complex glyph represented an entire sentence. Diversely shaped, shaded and superimposed "cartouches" represent the syntactic relations of the verb and noun phrases of a sentence.

The edges of the cartouches had particular shapes that indicate one set of inflections, the colors indicate another set of inflections, and the textures yet another one.

On the cartouches, "letters" of hexagonal outline would spell out the shapes of particular lexemes.

The cartouches formed phrases, with primary phrases overlapping subordinate phrases The coloring system utilized different color densities and texturing for different colors in order to be usable by color-blind people.

These density conventions also allowed the formal system to be inexpensively printed in black-and-white, or inscribed or imprinted on stone or other materials.

As of July 2011,