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@sevenpoints 2017-05-16T05:32:15.000000Z 字数 5477 阅读 789

Ithkuil翻译

人造语言


翻译自en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ithkuil

首段
Ithkuil is an experimental constructed language created by John Quijada,
ithkuil是由John Quijada所创造的一门人造实验语言。
designed to express deeper levels of human cognition briefly yet overtly and clearly, particularly with regard to human categorization.
旨在简单而明确地表达更深层次的人类认知,特别是在人类分类方面。
Presented as a cross between an a priori philosophical and a logical language striving to minimize the ambiguities and semantic vagueness found in natural human languages,
作为先验哲学语言和逻辑语言的交汇点,其尽可能的消除自然语言中可能出现的语意模糊和歧义。
Ithkuil is notable for its grammatical complexity and extensive phoneme inventory,
ithkuil以其语法的高度曲折和音系的宽大著称,
the latter being simplified in the final version of the language.
虽然后者在最终定型的版本中被简化。
The name "Ithkuil" is an anglicized form of Iţkuîl, which in the original form roughly means "hypothetical representation of a language".
Ithkuil是Iţkuîl的无附标写法,而Iţkuîl用其本身解释是“一种假想的语言”
Quijada states he did not create Ithkuil to be auxiliary or used in everyday conversations,
Quijada表示他创造Ithkuil的目的不是为了用于日常对话
but rather to serve as a language for more elaborate and profound fields where more insightful thoughts are expected,such as philosophy, arts, science and politics.
而是希望在诸如哲学、艺术、科学、政治这些高端的方面得到一些前所未有的想法
The many examples from the original grammar book[2] show that a message,
从最早版本的语法书撷得的例子来看
like a meaningful phrase or a sentence, can usually be expressed in Ithkuil with fewer sounds, or lexically distinct speech-elements, than in natural human languages. For example, the two-word Ithkuil sentence "Tram-mļöi hhâsmařpţuktôx" can be translated into English as "On the contrary, I think it may turn out that this rugged mountain range trails off at some point".
通常在自然语言中需要长篇大论说明的一些事件或概念,在Ithkuil中仅仅需要不长的文段就可以对译,例如:"Tram-mļöi hhâsmařpţuktôx"这段文段若被译成英语则是"On the contrary, I think it may turn out that this rugged mountain range trails off at some point",被译成汉语则是“正相反,我认为这段崎岖的山路有可能导致车辆在某个时候出轨”
Quijada deems his creation too complex and strictly regular a language to have developed naturally, but nonetheless a language suited to human conversation. No person, including Quijada, is known to be able to speak Ithkuil fluently.
Quijada认为他创造的语言虽然较为复杂但依然适合用于人类交流。至今未有人能够流利的使用Ithkuil作为日常语言交谈,包括Quijada。
Three versions of the language have been publicized: the initial version in 2004, a revised version called Ilaksh in 2007, and a final, definitive version in 2011.
这个语言迄今为止已经公开发布了三版:2004年的初始版本、2007年的修订版本(被称作Ilaksh)、2011年的最终版本。
In 2004—and again in 2009 with Ilaksh—Ithkuil was featured in the Russian-language popular science and IT magazine Computerra.
初始版与修订版(Ilaksh)分别于在2004年和2009年被刊登在俄罗斯语言科普和IT杂志Computerra。
In 2008, it won the Smiley Award.
2008年,它赢得了笑脸奖。
Outline 概述
Influences
影响
For his influences,
對於他的影響
Quijada cites the
Quijada援引了
"morpho-phonology of Abkhaz verb complexes,
阿布哈茲語的動詞複合相關形態語音;
the moods of verbs of certain American Indian languages,
部分印第安語言的動詞情態;
the aspectual system of Niger–Kordofanian languages,
尼日尔科尔多凡语言的動詞體的系統;
the nominal case systems of Basque and Dagestanian languages,
巴斯克语和达吉他尼语言的名詞體系;
the enclitic system of the Wakashan languages,
瓦卡山语言的附着詞素體系;
the positional orientation systems of Tzeltal and Guugu Yimithirr,
Tzeltal和Guugu Yimithirr的方位系統;
the Semitic triliteral root morphology,
閃米特諸語的根詞形;
and the hearsay and possessive categories of Suzette Elgin's Láadan language".
以及Suzette Elgin所創制的拉丹語的傳聞和所有格類別。
Ilaksh: a revision of Ithkuil Ilaksh:一個修訂版的Ithkuil(2007年)
Since the mention of Ithkuil in the Russian magazine ''Computerra'', several speakers of Russian contacted Quijada and expressed enthusiasm to learn Ithkuil, with several complaining about its difficulty in pronunciation. Quijada remade Ithkuil's morphophonology and published the revision on 10 June 2007 as Ilaksh. The innovation featured other amendments to grammar, like some additional ''Levels'' or a slight shuffling of ''noun cases''.
在Ithkuil被俄羅斯雜誌''Computerra''報道之後,一些語言學習者主動聯絡Quijada向他表示他們對該語言的學習熱情。其中有些人抱怨Ithkuil發音太難了。於是Quijada修訂了Ithkuil語言的形態,于2007年6月10日發佈了修訂版Ilaksh。此次修改的着眼點在於語法,譬如增加了額外的“級”或一些輕微的名詞變動。
The Ilaksh script was redesigned. It had two forms, a sequential "informal" system suitable for handwriting or compact typesetting, and a "formal" [[logographic]] system with artistic possibilities resembling [[Maya script]]s.
Ilaksh的文字系統被重新設計,它有兩種形式:一種是僅用於手寫和要求緊湊排版是的“非正式”書寫系統;另一種則是藝術可能性類似於瑪雅文字的“正式”語素文字書寫系統。
In the "informal" writing system, several parallel sets of lines are shaped to correspond sequentially to the different parallel sets of lexemes and inflections. It is directly pronounceable. The author designed it with reserve for convenient handwriting. The overall design would permit compact, clear, black-and-white rendering.
在“非正式”的文字中,幾條平行的線條通過有目的且合適的拼合,不同的平行線表示不同的詞根和曲折變化。這個體系是嚴格遵循“一字一音”。作者在設計這種文字的時候預先考慮了書寫便利。這種文字整體設計緊湊、清晰、黑白分明。
In the colorful "formal" script, a single complex glyph represented an entire sentence. Diversely shaped, shaded and superimposed "cartouches" represent the syntactic relations of the verb and noun phrases of a sentence.
在多彩的“正式”文字中,僅僅使用一個複合字形便可以記載一句話。這種文字通過不同的形狀、陰影、疊加的附標來表示句內詞彙間的句法關係
The edges of the cartouches had particular shapes that indicate one set of inflections, the colors indicate another set of inflections, and the textures yet another one.
字符的边缘有特殊的形状,这些形状表示一种词形变化、颜色表示另一种词形变化、纹理表示另一种词形变化。
On the cartouches, "letters" of hexagonal outline would spell out the shapes of particular lexemes.
在该文字中,六角形的“字母”将会按照设定组合排列成一个形状,用以表达一个词根。
The cartouches formed phrases, with primary phrases overlapping subordinate phrases The coloring system utilized different color densities and texturing for different colors in order to be usable by color-blind people.
单个该文字合文就可表达一个句子,主句与从句叠合在一起。不同的颜色对应不同的纹理,以便色盲使用。
These density conventions also allowed the formal system to be inexpensively printed in black-and-white, or inscribed or imprinted on stone or other materials.
这些也允许用在廉价的纸、石头或是其他材料上。
As of July 2011,
直止2011年7月
Quijada planned to adopt the formal script
Quijada計劃採用正式的書寫系統
"for use as an alternative, 'ornamental' writing system for artistic purposes"
“用以替代用作艺术目的的‘裝飾’书写系统”
to the newest revision of Ithkuil,
用於最新版本的Ithkuil
which was made to be morphologically similar to Ilaksh.
其形態類似於Ilaksh
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