@sambodhi 2018-04-23T03:57:23.000000Z 字数 11554 阅读 971

# The 5 A's of AI

_Summary -- Fundamentally, there are five ways to work with Artificial Intelligence. The __5 A's of AI __are the five ways for us to _choose how we want to work with AI: are we guiding the AI or do we trust the AI enough to let it guide us.
_Summary——从根本上说，有五种方法可以使用人工智能。A的AI是我们选择如何与AI合作的五种方式:我们是在引导人工智能，还是相信人工智能能够引导我们。

Artificial Intelligence (AI) will have a big impact on our work and life. Just like a simple pocket calculator is better at making calculations, AI is better at specific more complex tasks than we are. Maybe we could do it, but we rather use the calculator - or soon the AI. The difference between a calculator and AI is that AI can deal with way more complex tasks; even so much more, that in some situations we may choose it to lead us instead of us leading the AI.

## 人工智能与人类智能不同。

The stupid thing to do would be to compete with AI in fields that AI is really good at. And there are many. But there is good news. Although AI and human intelligence partly overlap in function, they are very different beasts. There are lots of things that AI cannot do that we are very good at. AI is better at well-structured, predictable and repetitive tasks; humans are better at, e.g. ill-structured, judgmental or improbable tasks:

• **Ill-structured problems **- Today, AI is applied successfully to solve 'narrow', well-structured problems, such as beating the world champion of Go, with, e.g. a clear criterium for success. Humans excel in solving general, ill-structured problems, such as answering the question how we should measure the quality of life.
• 非良构问题：今天，人工智能已成功应用于解决“狭窄”、良构的问题，像击败围棋世界冠军这样的，有一个明确的成功标准。人类擅长解决的是一般的、非良构的问题，例如回答如何衡量生活质量的问题。
• **Understanding context **- AI does not understand context. Even though it may be better than doctors at recognising skin cancer, AI does not have the faintest notion of what skin is or what cancer is. To the AI, the skin image is just a pattern of ones and zeros. (A different, even more, basic example is the Winograd Schema Challenge.) It is very difficult for AI to give contextual or ethical judgements.
• **Highly improbable events **- By the very nature of how AI works - pattern recognition and prediction - it cannot anticipate black swans, highly improbable events. Humans are not brilliant at it either, but better than AI. (It must be said, though, that machine, animal and human behaviour is pretty much based on patterns - which leaves a lot of room for AI, still.)
• 极不可能的事件：根据人工智能的工作原理：模式识别和预测，因此，它无法预测黑天鹅这种极不可能发生的事件。人类也不是很聪明，但在这点还是比人工智能做得更好。（但必须指出的是，机器、动物和人类的行为基本上都是基于模式的，这就给人工智能留下了很大的空间。）

## 双层智能:由人工智能增强的人工智能

It is clear that smart people who use AI as a tool will be more effective: they will be Double Smart. So, the question is not _whether _we will work and live with AI, but _how _we will use it.

## So, how will we work with AI?

The keyword in working with AI is 'augmentation': acting more smartly together with AI. Now, again, the question is: how exactly will we work with AI?

Fundamentally, there are five ways how we can work with AI. I call these the 5 A's of AI. The logic of the five A’s is simple. At the first A, the AI is a follower. Along the A’s the AI becomes more and more self-reliant and guiding – up to full autonomy at the fifth A.

But it will be us, humans, who are in control. Even with full autonomy, we are the ones who interfere or switch the AI on and off. AI is a tool, a smart tool, but still a tool. Nothing more, nothing less. The 5 A's of AI are five ways for us to choose how we want to work with AI: are we guiding the AI or do we allow the AI to guide us.

So what are the 5 A's of AI?

### (Absence)

Not so fast! There is a sort of 'zeroth' A. For the sake of completeness. We already use a lot of tools where AI seems to be absent, but isn't. It’s there often without us knowing. For example, face recognition in your photo app, the spam filter in your email, personalised online shopping recommendations, or fraud detection for credit cards. Sometimes you wonder "how on earth did [my machine] know that ...?" That could well be AI 'in stealth mode'.

So, again, what are the real 5 A's of AI?

### 1 – Assistant

**You use AI as a servant, answering your questions and executing your orders. **The AI basically is an Expert System, with mostly predefined functionality and increasingly one that you can speak to in natural language (NLP). It may have limited _predictive _functionality: the ability to anticipate what will happen (inherently probabilistic). The obvious example here is telling your smartphone what to do or asking for information. _“Alexa, what’s the weather, today?” _or “Hey Siri, invite Julia for dinner tonight 8 PM in Le Paris Restaurant and book a table for two.” No need to say 'please' or 'thank you' to Alexa or Siri. The Assistant AI may ask questions but does so only for clarification.

**You use AI as a buddy or consultant, giving you tips and suggestions on alternatives. (**The start of) a real two-way dialogue. This is the enhanced version of an Assistant AI: next to significant predictive capabilities, it has _prescriptive _capability, it is able to give recommendations to achieve goals. Google Maps is a simple example. If you ask for directions, it gives (prescribes) you _alternatives _for the fastest route (the goal) with expected travel times (predicted probabilities), e.g. avoiding traffic jams or toll roads. A better example is a smart AI expert system for psychiatrists. In psychiatry, often there is not one clear generic answer. It depends on the patient. Rather, the psychiatrist gets cure suggestions with healing probabilities - which in a _man-machine dialogue _the psychiatrist then can translate into a custom solution for her specific patient. The Advisor AI is different from the Assistant AI in that when the AI communicates, it brings new insights and suggestions into the dialogue, rather than just ask for clarification or execute orders.

### 3 – Augmented

**You do what you are best at, AI does what it is better at than you. **Together with AI, you do new things that you could not do on your own. You achieve more than before, but now you only do the fun part. AI does the predictable and repetitive work – no matter how complex – in a semi-autonomous way: it does its subtask, but does not complete the entire task; a human does the other subtask. Or we as humans pilot the AI, tell it what to do, control it, have the overview or complement it. An example is translating a text, e.g. from English to German: AI does the initial translation, and then a human translator corrects the language. Similarly, AI is used in law firms to search through millions of pages of case law and write a draft document. An experienced lawyer then completes the document. A different example is working with smart robots in production work, where the smart robot does the heavy and boring work fast and accurately.

### 4 – Authority

**You follow insights and instructions from AI because you _trust _that the AI knows best.**Sometimes it even tells you what to do – as a planner or supervisor ... or boss? The Authority AI is fully descriptive, predictive and prescriptive. It 'knows' better than the humans who work with the Authority AI, because it has access to an 'overview' of more and better data. In a gradual process of working with an Authority AI, human collaborators have step-by-step learned to trust the Authority AI because again and again, it turned out to 'know' better, more effective or efficient ways of working than humans. An example is the smart mobile apps, which give parcel delivery persons or pizza delivery boys instructions on when, where and via what - dynamically optimised - route to deliver the next parcel or pizza, including evaluation of delivery performance and rewards.

### 5 – Autonomy

You start and stop the AI, performing the task at hand on its own. Self-driving cars are the obvious example. You step in, tell the car where to go and sit and relax. If things go well, you do nothing. With the right authorisation and tools, you can interfere with the AI at any time. Autonomous AI goes a step further than autopilot systems, currently in use in, e.g. trains and aeroplanes, in that it dynamically learns and improves its performance - it is not rigid, pre-programmed instruction based software code.

In the course of time, many autonomous AI systems will feel so natural, that they will appear to be absent. We have then become so used to them, that we do not consciously observe and notice them anymore as AI systems. That will close the loop of the 5 A's. (See image below)

Is there one more A? Maybe.

There are lots of spectacular, imaginative stories of robots and AI outsmarting humans, taking over the world and ruling the universe. So far, I have no signs of that, but I keep an open mind. To be honest, I’m much more worried about unethical use of – e.g. biased – AI by fellow humans.

I think the opposite is more likely really.

### (Affection)

No joke. People do have passionate romances with Siri and Alexa. And people do bond emotionally with humanoid robots – when they fall, we feel the hurt. And smart robots are being used to accompany demented elderly. But what I mean here is AI recognising and responding to your emotions. It already happens in some customer service chatbots.

It may take some time before we build affective relations with AI in large numbers, although we already are pretty much _addicted _to our smartphones ... (yes, another A). In the meantime, I suggest we first get used to working with AI in each of the five described ways, the 5 A's of AI.

(Feel free to use this image, if you want to share the 5 A's of AI. - copy/paste)

Kees Groeneveld, CaseGreenfield

. . .

_ Thank you for reading my post. Here at Datafloq, _LinkedIn_ and _Medium_ I regularly write about management, work and life with _Artificial Intelligence_. If you would like to read my future posts then simply _join my network here_ or click 'Follow'. Also feel free to connect on _Twitter.

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_Note - The 5 A's of AI are presented under the _Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives_license (CC BY ND). This means you are free - and kindly invited - to re-distribute and re-use the _5 A's of AI_ as long as Case Greenfield is credited as the creator._

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