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@sambodhi 2018-04-23T03:57:23.000000Z 字数 11554 阅读 740

The 5 A's of AI

_Summary -- Fundamentally, there are five ways to work with Artificial Intelligence. The __5 A's of AI __are the five ways for us to _choose how we want to work with AI: are we guiding the AI or do we trust the AI enough to let it guide us.
_Summary——从根本上说,有五种方法可以使用人工智能。A的AI是我们选择如何与AI合作的五种方式:我们是在引导人工智能,还是相信人工智能能够引导我们。

Artificial Intelligence (AI) will have a big impact on our work and life. Just like a simple pocket calculator is better at making calculations, AI is better at specific more complex tasks than we are. Maybe we could do it, but we rather use the calculator - or soon the AI. The difference between a calculator and AI is that AI can deal with way more complex tasks; even so much more, that in some situations we may choose it to lead us instead of us leading the AI.
人工智能将对我们的工作和生活产生重大影响。就像一个简单的袖珍计算器更擅长计算,人工智能在特定的、更复杂的任务比我们做得还好。或许我们可以做到这一点,但我们宁愿使用计算器:或许我们很快就用上人工智能。计算器和人工智能之间的区别在于,人工智能可以处理更复杂的任务。即便如此,在某些情况下,我们可以选择让人工智能来引领我们,而不是我们来引领人工智能。

AI is different from human intelligence

人工智能与人类智能不同。

The stupid thing to do would be to compete with AI in fields that AI is really good at. And there are many. But there is good news. Although AI and human intelligence partly overlap in function, they are very different beasts. There are lots of things that AI cannot do that we are very good at. AI is better at well-structured, predictable and repetitive tasks; humans are better at, e.g. ill-structured, judgmental or improbable tasks:
在人工智能非常擅长的领域与之竞争,是一种愚蠢的做法,而且这类做法还有很多。但是也有个好消息,虽然人工智能和人类智能在功能上有部分重叠,但它们是完全不同的动物。有很多事情,人工智能不能做,而我们人类却非常擅长。在结构良好、可预测和重复性的任务上,人工智能做得更好;而人类更擅长的是:结构不合理、判断错误或不可能完成的任务:

Double Smart: human intelligence augmented with AI

双层智能:由人工智能增强的人工智能

It is clear that smart people who use AI as a tool will be more effective: they will be Double Smart. So, the question is not _whether _we will work and live with AI, but _how _we will use it.
很显然,将人工智能作为工具的聪明人会更有效率:他们将是双层智能。因此,问题不在于我们是否会与人工智能一起工作和生活,而是我们将如何使用人工智能。

So, how will we work with AI?

那么,我们将如何与AI合作呢?

The keyword in working with AI is 'augmentation': acting more smartly together with AI. Now, again, the question is: how exactly will we work with AI?
与人工智能合作的关键词是“增强”:与人工智能结合,更聪明的做事。现在的问题是,我们将如何与人工智能合作?

Fundamentally, there are five ways how we can work with AI. I call these the 5 A's of AI. The logic of the five A’s is simple. At the first A, the AI is a follower. Along the A’s the AI becomes more and more self-reliant and guiding – up to full autonomy at the fifth A.

从根本上讲,我们可以通过五种方式与人工智能合作。我将这些方式成为使用人工智能的5A法。这五个A的逻辑很简单。第一个A,意即AI是一个追随者。随着A的发展,人工智能将变得越来越自立,在第五个A阶段经完全自治。

But it will be us, humans, who are in control. Even with full autonomy, we are the ones who interfere or switch the AI on and off. AI is a tool, a smart tool, but still a tool. Nothing more, nothing less. The 5 A's of AI are five ways for us to choose how we want to work with AI: are we guiding the AI or do we allow the AI to guide us.
但是,我们人类都在掌控中。就算人工智能拥有了完全的自治能力,我们还是会具备干预或者开启、关闭人工智能的能力。人工智能是一种智能工具,虽然如此,但它仍然只是一种工具而已。使用人工智能的5A法是我们选择如何与人工智能合作的五种方式:是我们引导人工智能,还是允许人工智能来引导我们。

So what are the 5 A's of AI?
那么,人工智能的5A法是什么?

(Absence)

Not so fast! There is a sort of 'zeroth' A. For the sake of completeness. We already use a lot of tools where AI seems to be absent, but isn't. It’s there often without us knowing. For example, face recognition in your photo app, the spam filter in your email, personalised online shopping recommendations, or fraud detection for credit cards. Sometimes you wonder "how on earth did [my machine] know that ...?" That could well be AI 'in stealth mode'.
没有那么快!有一种“第零”A。为了完整性,我们已经使用了很多工具,在这些工具中,人工智能似乎不存在,但实际上不是这样的,它常常在我们不知情的情况下出现。例如,在你的照片应用中的人脸识别。电子邮件中的垃圾邮件过滤器、个性化的网购建议,或者信用卡欺诈检测。有时候你会想“我的机器怎么会知道……”这很可能是人工智能的“隐身模式”。

So, again, what are the real 5 A's of AI?
那么,人工智能真正的5A法究竟是什么呢?

5As of AI

1 – Assistant

**You use AI as a servant, answering your questions and executing your orders. **The AI basically is an Expert System, with mostly predefined functionality and increasingly one that you can speak to in natural language (NLP). It may have limited _predictive _functionality: the ability to anticipate what will happen (inherently probabilistic). The obvious example here is telling your smartphone what to do or asking for information. _“Alexa, what’s the weather, today?” _or “Hey Siri, invite Julia for dinner tonight 8 PM in Le Paris Restaurant and book a table for two.” No need to say 'please' or 'thank you' to Alexa or Siri. The Assistant AI may ask questions but does so only for clarification.

你将人工智能作为仆人,回答你的问题并执行你的命令。人工智能基本上是一个专家系统,主要是预定义的功能,并且越来越多的是你可以用自然语言(NLP)来说话。它可能具有有限的预测功能:预测将要发生的事情的能力(固有概率性)。这里最明显的例子就是告诉你的智能手机要做什么或者要求提供什么信息。如“Alexa,今天天气怎么样?”或“Hey Siri,邀请Julia今晚八点在Le Paris餐厅吃晚餐,并预定两张位置”。无需对Alexa或Siri说“Please”、“Thank you”。人工智能助理可能会提出问题,但这样做只是为了澄清问题。

2 – Advisor

**You use AI as a buddy or consultant, giving you tips and suggestions on alternatives. (**The start of) a real two-way dialogue. This is the enhanced version of an Assistant AI: next to significant predictive capabilities, it has _prescriptive _capability, it is able to give recommendations to achieve goals. Google Maps is a simple example. If you ask for directions, it gives (prescribes) you _alternatives _for the fastest route (the goal) with expected travel times (predicted probabilities), e.g. avoiding traffic jams or toll roads. A better example is a smart AI expert system for psychiatrists. In psychiatry, often there is not one clear generic answer. It depends on the patient. Rather, the psychiatrist gets cure suggestions with healing probabilities - which in a _man-machine dialogue _the psychiatrist then can translate into a custom solution for her specific patient. The Advisor AI is different from the Assistant AI in that when the AI communicates, it brings new insights and suggestions into the dialogue, rather than just ask for clarification or execute orders.

你将人工智能作为好友或顾问,为你提供替代方案的提示和一些建议。(开始)一个真正的双向对话。这是人工智能助理的增强版本:除了重要的预测能力外,它还具有规划能力,能够提供实现目标的建议。Google地图就是这样的简单例子,如果你查询路线,它会给出(规划)最快路线或预期旅途时间(预测概率)的方案,例如避开交通堵塞或者收费公路。一个更好的例子是精神科医生的智能医疗专家系统。在精神病学中,通常没有一个明确的通用答案。这要取决于患者。更确切地说,精神病科医生会以治愈的概率形式出现的治疗建议:在人机对话中,精神科医生可以将其转化为针对特定病人的定制治疗方案。人工智能顾问与人工智能助理的不同之处在于,它和人类交流时,为对话提供新的见解和建议,而不仅仅是要求澄清或执行命令。

3 – Augmented

**You do what you are best at, AI does what it is better at than you. **Together with AI, you do new things that you could not do on your own. You achieve more than before, but now you only do the fun part. AI does the predictable and repetitive work – no matter how complex – in a semi-autonomous way: it does its subtask, but does not complete the entire task; a human does the other subtask. Or we as humans pilot the AI, tell it what to do, control it, have the overview or complement it. An example is translating a text, e.g. from English to German: AI does the initial translation, and then a human translator corrects the language. Similarly, AI is used in law firms to search through millions of pages of case law and write a draft document. An experienced lawyer then completes the document. A different example is working with smart robots in production work, where the smart robot does the heavy and boring work fast and accurately.
你做你最擅长的事情,人工智能比你做得还好。和人工智能一起,你会做一些自己无法完成的新事情。你会比以前做得更多,但眼下你只能做有趣的部分。人工智能以半自主的方式来完成可预测的、重复的工作:无论多么复杂,它完成了子任务,但是没有完成整个任务;由人类来完成另外的子任务。或者我们作为人类,试点人工智能,告诉它该做什么,去控制它,进行概述或者补充它。一个例子就是翻译文本,例如从英语翻译为德语:人工智能进行最初的翻译,然后由人类来纠正、校对。同样,人工智能在律师事务所中得到应用,通过搜索数百万页的判例法并起草文档草案。有经验的律师完成这份文档。一个不同的例子是,与智能机器人一起工作,智能机器人可以快速、准确地完成繁重而枯燥的工作。

4 – Authority

**You follow insights and instructions from AI because you _trust _that the AI knows best.**Sometimes it even tells you what to do – as a planner or supervisor ... or boss? The Authority AI is fully descriptive, predictive and prescriptive. It 'knows' better than the humans who work with the Authority AI, because it has access to an 'overview' of more and better data. In a gradual process of working with an Authority AI, human collaborators have step-by-step learned to trust the Authority AI because again and again, it turned out to 'know' better, more effective or efficient ways of working than humans. An example is the smart mobile apps, which give parcel delivery persons or pizza delivery boys instructions on when, where and via what - dynamically optimised - route to deliver the next parcel or pizza, including evaluation of delivery performance and rewards.

你遵循人工智能提供的见解和指示,因为你相信它最了解。有时候,它甚至会告诉你应该怎么做——作为规划师或主管……还是老板?权威的人工智能完全具有描述性、预测性和规范性。它比与人工智能打交道的人更“清楚”,因为它可以获取更多、更好的数据的“概览”。在与人工智能合作的渐进过程中,人类和作者逐步学会了信任人工智能,因为它一次又一次地证明了它比人类更“清楚”更好的、更有效地工作方式。一个例子是智能手机应用,通过什么→动态优化→送达下一个包括或披萨的路线,给送件员或者披萨送货员提供何时何地的说明,包括交付绩效和奖励的评估。

5 – Autonomy

You start and stop the AI, performing the task at hand on its own. Self-driving cars are the obvious example. You step in, tell the car where to go and sit and relax. If things go well, you do nothing. With the right authorisation and tools, you can interfere with the AI at any time. Autonomous AI goes a step further than autopilot systems, currently in use in, e.g. trains and aeroplanes, in that it dynamically learns and improves its performance - it is not rigid, pre-programmed instruction based software code.
你启动和停止人工智能,独自执行任务。自动驾驶汽车就是一个明显的例子。你坐进车里,然后告诉汽车去哪儿,然后你就坐着放松自己。如果一切顺利的话,你什么都不用做。有了正确的授权和工具,你随时可以干预人工智能。自动人工智能比自动驾驶系统更进一步,目前正在使用的是驾驶系统,例如火车和飞机,因为它可以动态学习并改进其性能,这不是严格的、预编程的基于指令的软件代码。

在时间的过程中,许多自动人工智能系统将会感觉很自然,它们似乎会缺席。我们已经习惯了它们,以至于我们不再有意识地观察和注意它们,就像人工智能系统一样。这将关闭5 A的循环。(见下图)

In the course of time, many autonomous AI systems will feel so natural, that they will appear to be absent. We have then become so used to them, that we do not consciously observe and notice them anymore as AI systems. That will close the loop of the 5 A's. (See image below)

随着时间的推移,许多自主人工智能系统将会让人感觉很自然,它们似乎无处不在。而我们已经习以为常,不再有意识地观察并注意到它们是人工智能系统。这将关闭5A的循环。(见下图)

Is there one more A? Maybe.
还有更多的A吗?也许。

(Adversary)

There are lots of spectacular, imaginative stories of robots and AI outsmarting humans, taking over the world and ruling the universe. So far, I have no signs of that, but I keep an open mind. To be honest, I’m much more worried about unethical use of – e.g. biased – AI by fellow humans.
有很多关于机器人和人工智能的精彩、富有想象力的故事,它们超越了人类,征服了世界,统治了整个宇宙。到目前为止,我还没有发现这方面的迹象,但我保持着开放的心态。老实说,我更担心的是人类的不道德的使用——例如,有偏见的人工智能。

我认为相反的可能性更大。

I think the opposite is more likely really.

(Affection)

No joke. People do have passionate romances with Siri and Alexa. And people do bond emotionally with humanoid robots – when they fall, we feel the hurt. And smart robots are being used to accompany demented elderly. But what I mean here is AI recognising and responding to your emotions. It already happens in some customer service chatbots.
没有开玩笑。人们确实和Siri和Alexa有激情的恋情。人们在情感上与类人机器人结合在一起,当它们倒下时,我们会感到受伤。智能机器人也被用来陪伴老年痴呆症患者。但我的意思是,人工智能识别并回应你的情绪。它已经发生在一些客户服务聊天机器人中。

It may take some time before we build affective relations with AI in large numbers, although we already are pretty much _addicted _to our smartphones ... (yes, another A). In the meantime, I suggest we first get used to working with AI in each of the five described ways, the 5 A's of AI.
尽管我们已经沉迷于智能手机,但可能需要一段时间才能与人工智能建立大量的情感关系。

我们可能需要一段时间才能与人工智能建立起大量的情感关系,尽管我们已经对智能手机上瘾了……(是的,另一个A)。同时,我建议我们第一次习惯在五种方法中使用AI,即AI的5 A。

5As of AI

(Feel free to use this image, if you want to share the 5 A's of AI. - copy/paste)

Kees Groeneveld, CaseGreenfield

. . .

_ Thank you for reading my post. Here at Datafloq, _LinkedIn_ and _Medium_ I regularly write about management, work and life with _Artificial Intelligence_. If you would like to read my future posts then simply _join my network here_ or click 'Follow'. Also feel free to connect on _Twitter.

Follow, Like or Share if you appreciate this topic.

_Note - The 5 A's of AI are presented under the _Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives_license (CC BY ND). This means you are free - and kindly invited - to re-distribute and re-use the _5 A's of AI_ as long as Case Greenfield is credited as the creator._

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