@zhongdao 2018-09-06T06:01:40.000000Z 字数 23695 阅读 5262

# 松树种植方法

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# 松树种植方法信息精要

## 种植方法和过程

### 从收集种子处理到发芽育苗

1 小的是雄果，大的是雌果，只有雌果才含有种子 秋季松果成熟时采撷种子，大部分8-10月 选松果 雌果鳞片要微张，而不能完全打开。鳞片完全打开的松果可能已经把种子释放出去了。
2 捡地上掉的松果，也可以从枝头采摘它们，选择色泽棕褐或者紫红的松果 青涩的松果还未成熟，可能无法提供适于育苗的种子
3 将松果置于温热干燥的表面。将它们直接置于阳光下使其鳞片干燥展开，便于取种 展开种子 可以调高室温加速这一进程，但温度不要高于45摄氏度
4 松果的每瓣鳞片下应该有一到两颗种子，它们有时候会粘连在某种翼状物上，便于借风播种。把松果放在网眼大小1.25厘米的筛子或者钢丝网内，种子会通过网眼掉出来；或用镊子 取出
5 将种子置于装满清水的容器中一到两天，水温与室温相当。饱满有活性的种子会慢慢沉底，而干瘪无用的种子则会浮于水面。 1-2天，另一种说法是2-9小时 筛选 清水除了促进种子萌发，还可筛选合格。
6 决定是否贮存种子。秋天获得的新鲜树种可立即用于种植。将种子贮存于模拟最佳环境中的方法叫做层积处理。 秋天 时机选择 直接种植可采用阿夏建议：阿夏的种植方法
7 南方（非高海拔地区）温热气候下生长的松树无需层积处理，只要贮存在室温干燥条件下即可。生长于湿润寒冷地区的松树发芽离不开冷湿的环境。 存储区别 不同树种萌发所需的条件也不同。
8 如果是少量的树种，请贮存于湿纸巾间。把纸巾堆叠到3至6毫米厚，用清水沾湿纸巾，垂直悬挂一角直至水滴干。一张半纸巾上放种子，另一半盖住种子。之后将纸巾放入密封保鲜袋，存放于冰箱中，温度五摄氏度。 你可以取一只大吸管或小细管插在密封袋口，让外面的空气进入，为种子提供充足氧气。 存储少 有些树种在放入冰箱前应存放于温暖黑暗的地方。树种不同，所需的时间也不同。
9 如果种子数量较多，可以考虑存放在油布袋中。在浸水之后，立刻将约0.23公斤的种子放置于油布或其他透气软布料上，然后扎成口袋。扎紧口袋，滤出多余水分。把一个大塑料袋绑在油布袋口，这样多余的水分就会流入塑料袋而不会浸湿种子。之后将布袋存于冰箱，保持温度五摄氏度 存储多
10 每周都检查发芽情况。萌发的种子会破壳而出，芽根暴露在外。取决于树种和种子本身的情况，萌发过程大概需要三周甚至数年之久。对于几周后还未发芽的种子，你可以把它们控干，然后重复上述操作。 三周甚至数年之久 检查 如果播种期已过或者你想为来年贮存树种，将树种表面擦干，保留一点水分，然后放入冰箱。定期查看以保证它们没有发芽。
11 把种子置于盛有培养基的盆或筒中。松树种子很娇嫩，种植在外面容易感染或被啮齿动物啃食。适合松树生长的小塑料筒可以促进种子根系发展。如果找不到的话，也可以用小花盆替代。育种不要用土壤，而应该用培养基。把种子根尖朝下种植 种植 培养基：百分之八十松树皮百分之二十泥煤藓的比例自行混合；室内种植，请将种子置于高处以防老鼠啃咬；这步可以采取阿夏的建议
12 松树适宜在阳光下生长，但小松树在阳光炙热的时候容易晒伤。把幼苗置于阴影下以防午后烈日，比如放在朝阳的窗户下。保持种子湿润，但是不要湿透。根据阿纳斯塔夏的建议，在干燥的天气里，你可以在盆中洗脚，并将这些水倒在芽下。 1-2年 精心照料 等树苗长到五厘米高时候移植到大的花盆里，或者在长到十到十五厘米时种入中号塑料套或花盆里。

### 发芽

1. 将种子放入装有室温清水的碗中1.5-2小时（最好持续9小时，或者1-2天）。沉没的人表明他们最适合种植。 不要扔掉漂浮的，看其是否干瘪。如果是饱满的种子，你可以单独种植，有些也可能发芽。
2. 种植前，如果您愿意，可以完成所有阿纳斯塔夏的建议（见下文*） 看下文附文2和相关链接:阿夏的种植方法
3. 为了更好地发芽，用研磨材料（砂纸）轻轻划伤每个螺母的窄端。
4. 将雪松坚果与其体积的无菌湿（50％）基质（沙子，锯末，泥炭，苔藓）混合2至3倍，然后放入温度范围为-4到+4的寒冷地方至少12周。分层。 每两周检查一次种子，因为它们可以提早开始。一开始就进入下一步。
5. 将开始的坚果种植在一个装有特制混合物（不是土壤）的盒子里。混合物应由沙子（70％）和小尺寸针叶木屑（30％）制成。与土壤相反，这种混合物没有腐烂的细菌，并且具有保湿性， 并且考虑到雪松胚芽非常脆弱且容易腐烂和干燥，如果你严格遵循这种混合物，这种混合物的发芽和存活率非常高。指导，高达99％。
6. 应将坚果窄端种植到混合物中。这是菌出来的地方，这样它很容易将壳体推到表面，并立即看到光线。种植坚果意味着只是将它稍微放到混合物下面，这样你就可以看到顶部。小心浇水。 或者，您可以将每个坚果放在一个单独的罐中。
7. 最后，在其上倒入一些干混合物，层数不超过3-5毫米。
8. 用聚乙烯盖住盒子以产生温室效应并将其置于阳光下。
9. 如果你把一切都弄好了，坚果会在9天内发芽！

### 种植

1. 取出聚乙烯。 对于气候温暖的地区 - 将盒子留在阴影中，保护它免受阳光直射。
2. 在大约1或2个月内，你应该将每个发芽种植在一个单独的盆中（如果你没有从一开始就将它们种植在不同的盆中）。
3. 用相同的沙子和针叶木屑混合物填充罐。 针叶木碎片很重要，因为它含有特殊的真菌，有利于年轻雪松芽的健康
4. 雪松盒中的混合物应充分润湿（粘性状态 - 最好取出豆芽）
5. 取一勺，小心地将其浸在芽的根部深度（3-5厘米）。 拿起新芽，然后用混合物将其重新放入准备好的罐中。
6. 将盆放在阳光充足的地方，并确保经常给它们浇水。 在盆中种植幼苗2 - 3年。
7. 根据阿纳斯塔夏的建议，在干燥的天气里，你可以在盆中洗脚，并将这些水倒在芽下。 小心！不要将水直接倒在芽苗针上，只能倒在根部。

### 幼苗移植

1. 挖一个50x50的孔，用腐殖质，泥炭和落针的混合物填充（如果可能的话）。 如果地面是粘性的，那么在洞中添加1/3的沙子。
2. 移栽时确保根系保持完整。 在洞中，根部展开，土壤倒入，打包，根颈应与土壤齐平。
3. 给植物浇水， 在最初的两到三个月内，确保土壤不会变干。
4. 在气候温暖的地区，保护幼苗免受阳光直射，使用大量的草或在幼苗周围用枝拉伸的布。在寒冷地区，雪松只能在阳光充足的地方生长良好。 寒冷地区,例如，在阴影中长5年，长到20厘米，在阳光下长5年 - 高达80厘米。

## 附加信息

### 西伯利亚雪松种子预处理方法

#### 预处理过程

1. 最可靠的是在春天用预层化的种子播种。将种子浸泡在50%的高锰酸钾溶液里2个小时，这会保护幼苗免受病害。
2. 接下来的操作是热水浸泡。雪松球果应该完全浸在热水（40~50°C）3天。热水必须每天更换。
3. 此后，球果必须放在三倍的腐叶土或中等粒度、冲洗干净的河沙搅拌均匀。河沙或腐叶土必须是湿的。湿的程度是：对于沙来说，如果你用手挤压，沙团不会散，但又不滴水；对于腐叶土来说，握在手中，只会滴很少几滴水。
把拌合好的种子倒在木箱中，摊成10~20厘米的一层。你需要在木箱的侧面和底部打孔，在箱子下面垫上木楔——这一切都是为了透气。然后每15天让湿度达到最初的状态。球果的层化是在零上4~6°C的温度下发生，可以放在地下室、酒窖或家庭的冰箱中。温度暂时降到零下4°C是可以的，但不能够超过2~3天。如果层化处理正确，大多数的种子会在播种时就冒出来。

# 参考原文引用

## 1. 怎样种植雪松（俄罗斯Science and life杂志）

HOW TO GROW CEDAR TREES

Foresters of our country (especially V. V. Assanov), denied the popular opinion that it is extremely difficult to raise cedar and that it grows slowly. In natural conditions, in the taiga, cedar begins to bear fruit after 40-50 years. In cultivated plantings, with feeding, care, some forms of cedar give up to half a meter increase in height in a year, begin to bear fruit 15-20 years after planting and bear fruit in 2-3 years, or even annually.

Seeds and cedar nuts are needed in order to grow a Siberian cedar. Of course proven benign seeds are preferable. But if you have to plant the nuts bought in shop, it is necessary to accept in advance that their germination can be low. The best time for cedar planting is the end of April — early May. It is necessary to carry out treatment of nuts 90 days before planting. If you plant unprepared seeds, they sprout (unless of course they will survive) only next spring. You can sow seeds in the fall, without preparation. It is necessary to choose the time before the frost, so rodents do not have time to destroy them. Crops must be covered with leaves, so they do not freeze.

However, the most reliable is a spring planting with pre-stratification of the seeds. To do this, they must first be lowered to 2 hours in a half-percent solution of potassium permanganate. It will protect the seedlings from disease.

The next operation is soaking. Cedar nuts should be filled with hot water (40-50°C) and soaked for three days. Water needs to be changed daily.

After that, the nuts must be thoroughly mixed with a triple volume of peat crumbs or medium-grained, well washed from the silt of river sand. Sand or peat should be wet. Be so wet that the sand, if you squeeze it in hand, must not scattered, but the water should not dripping, and from peat, compressed in a fist, should be only rare drops of the water.

The prepared mixture of seeds with peat and sand is poured into a wooden box with a layer of 10-20 centimeters. You need to make holes in the sides and on the bottom of the box; wooden wedges must be put under the box. All this is necessary for air access. A mixture of sand or peat with the seeds mixed well and moistened to the original condition at least once in 15 days. Stratification should take place at a temperature of plus 4-6°C in the basement, in the cellar or in the home refrigerator. Lowering the temperature to minus 4°C is allowed, but not more than for 2-3 days. If stratification is carried out correctly, most of the seeds will appear at the time of sowing.

And, finally, planting in the ground. The best soils for cedar are considered not too dry sandy or not very wet loamy soils. Seeds are planted to a depth of 2-3 centimeters. Planting be sure to mulch — cover the top with a layer of sawdust, peat litter. This protects the soil from drying, from compaction after watering or rain, from rapid overgrowth of weeds.

It is very interesting to observe how cedar grows. First appears a green loop. Then it straightens and pulls out the shell of the nut from the ground. Like a cap on top of the stem and the remains of another delicious cookie in it. Gradually the emerald panicle of the needles opens and the nut falls down. It attracts the attention of birds (crows, magpies, blue tits) while swinging on the stem. They bite down the nut and very soon realize that the nuts are buried in the ground, and they begin to dig crops. You need to carefully monitor the seeding, otherwise it will die. Therefore, it is better to cover the crops with shields of wicker or of shingles. Shields should be put on the bars so that they were raised above the soil by 5-7 centimeters. It is a good protection against birds and sunburn. After about a month they can be removed.

Further care for sowing cedar is simple: weeding, loosening the soil, watering. The best fertilizer for cedar is mullein (it is diluted with water in the proportion of one to ten).

The first 5-6 years of cedar growth in height is not very large. Then the growth significantly accelerates, and then the first harvest of cedar nuts just around the corner.

A. Sorokin, Zagorsk city, forester林业工作者
Based on materials of the magazine “Science and life” №7, 1986

### 文章原文链接

HOW TO GROW CEDAR TREES
https://vmegre.com/en/events/38824/

## 2. 如何从松果种植雪松树(ecominded.net)

The germinating capacity of cedar nut is preserved for up to four years. After sowing, the nuts are loosely covered with soil. The nut germinate in the year they are sown or in the following year, more rarely in the third year, after germination the young shoots must be kept in the shade and watered, in the second year the seedlings develop only the top shoot, in the third year they form the first whorl of lateral shoots. The young plant acquires a crown usually by the time it is 5 to 7 years old, and by 15 to 25 years of age is covered with branches almost to the ground. At 20 to 30 years of age, the lower branches begin to die off, and the crown acquires an oval shape.

How to germinate cedar nuts.
1. Put the seeds in a bowl with water for 1,5 – 2 hours (better for 9 hours). Those having sunk show they are best for planting. Don't throw away the floating ones, you can plant them separately and some may also germinate.
2. Before planting, you may accomplish all Anastasia’s recommendations, if you feel like that (see below * ).
3. For better germination, slightly scratch the narrow end of each nut by abrasive material (sand paper).
4. Mix cedar nuts with two to three times their volume of sterile wet (50%) substratum (sand, sawdust, peat, moss) and put them into the cold place with temperature range -4 to +4 for at least 12 weeks for stratification. Check the seeds every two weeks for they can start earlier. As soon as they started go to the next step below.
5. The started nuts should be planted in a box with specially prepared mix (not the earth). The mix should be made of sand (70%) and small size coniferous wood chipping (30%). As opposed to earth, this mix is free of putrid bacteria and is moisture-retentive and considering that cedar germ is very weak and is prone to decay and desiccation, the germination and survival rate in this mix is very high, if you strictly follow the instruction, upto 99%.
6. A nut should be planted narrow end down to the mix. This is where the germ comes out, this way it will easily push the shell up to the surface, and see the light straight away. To plant a nut means namely just to stick it slightly narrow end down to the mix, so that you can see the top. Water it with care. Alternatively you can plant each nut in a separate pot.
7. Finally, pour some dry mix over it, no more than 3-5 mm in layer.
8. Cover the box with polyethylene to create a greenhouse effect and place it under the sun.
9. If you made everything right, the nuts will germinate in 9 days!

1.将种子放入装有水的碗中1.5-2小时（最好持续9小时）。沉没的人表明他们最适合种植。不要扔掉漂浮的，你可以单独种植，有些也可能发芽。
2.种植前，如果您愿意，可以完成所有阿纳斯塔西娅的建议（见下文*）。
3.为了更好地发芽，用研磨材料（砂纸）轻轻划伤每个螺母的窄端。
4.将雪松坚果与其体积的无菌湿（50％）基质（沙子，锯末，泥炭，苔藓）混合2至3倍，然后放入温度范围为-4到+4的寒冷地方至少12周。分层。每两周检查一次种子，因为它们可以提早开始。他们一开始就进入下一步。
5.将开始的坚果种植在一个装有特制混合物（不是地球）的盒子里。混合物应由沙子（70％）和小尺寸针叶木屑（30％）制成。与地球相反，这种混合物没有腐烂的细菌，并且具有保湿性，并且考虑到雪松胚芽非常脆弱且容易腐烂和干燥，如果你严格遵循这种混合物，这种混合物的发芽和存活率非常高。指导，高达99％。
6.应将坚果窄端种植到混合物中。这是细菌出来的地方，这样它很容易将壳体推到表面，并立即看到光线。种植坚果意味着只是将它稍微缩小，直到混合物，这样你就可以看到顶部。小心浇水。或者，您可以将每个坚果放在一个单独的锅中。
7.最后，在其上倒入一些干混合物，层数不超过3-5毫米。
8.用聚乙烯盖住盒子以产生温室效应并将其置于阳光下。
9.如果你把一切都弄好了，坚果会在9天内发芽！

How to grow cedar sprouts.
1. Take the polyethylene out. For regions with warm climate - leave the box in a shadow, protect it from direct sun rays.
2. In about 1 or 2 months you should plant each sprout in a separate pot (if you did not plant them in separate pots from the beginning).
3. Fill in the pot with the same mix of sand and coniferous wood chipping*.
4. The mix in the box with cedars should be well moistened (to gummy state – better to take out sprouts)
5. Take a scoop and dip it with care under the sprout to the root depth (3-5 cm). Pick up the sprout and replant it to the prepared pot with mix.
6. Put the pots in sunny place and make sure you water them often. Grow the seedlings in pots for 2-3 years.
7. According to Anastasia's recommendations, at dry weather you may wash your feet in a basin and pour this water under the sprout. Be careful! Don’t pour the water directly on the sprout needles, only on the root.
* - Coniferous wood chipping is important, because it contains special kind of mycosis benefitial for well-being of young cedar sprouts.

1.取出聚乙烯。对于气候温暖的地区 - 将盒子留在阴影中，保护它免受阳光直射。
2.在大约1或2个月内，你应该将每个发芽种植在一个单独的盆中（如果你没有从一开始就将它们种植在不同的盆中）。
3.用相同的沙子和针叶木屑混合物填充锅。
4.雪松盒中的混合物应充分润湿（粘性状态 - 最好取出豆芽）
5。取一勺，小心地将其浸在芽的根部深度（3-5厘米）。拿起新芽，然后用混合物将其重新放入准备好的锅中。
6.将盆放在阳光充足的地方，并确保经常给它们浇水。在盆中种植幼苗2 - 3年。
7.根据阿纳斯塔西娅的建议，在干燥的天气里，你可以在盆中洗脚，并将这些水倒在芽下。小心！不要将水直接倒在芽苗针上，只能倒在根部。
* - 针叶木碎片很重要，因为它含有特殊的真菌病，有利于年轻雪松芽的健康。

How to transplant cedar seedlings in open ground.
1. Dig a 50x50 hole, fill it with a mixture of humus, peat, and fallen needles (if possible). If the ground is clayey, then add 1/3 sand to the hole.
2. When thransplanting ensure that the root system is kept intact. In the hole, the roots are spread out, soil is poured in, packed down, the root neck should be level with the soil.
3. Water the plant, and in the first two to three months, make sure that the soil does not dry out.
4. In the regions with warm climate protect the seedlings from direct sun rays, using lots of grass, or some cloth stretched on the sticks surrounding the seedling.
5. In cold regions cedars grow well only on sunny side. For example, for 5 year in a shadow it grow up to 20 cm, whereas for 5 years under the sun - up to 80 cm.

1.挖一个50x50的孔，用腐殖质，泥炭和落针的混合物填充（如果可能的话）。如果地面是粘性的，那么在洞中添加1/3的沙子。
2.移栽时确保根系保持完整。在洞中，根部展开，土壤倒入，打包，根颈应与土壤齐平。
3.给植物浇水，在最初的两到三个月内，确保土壤不会变干。
4.在气候温暖的地区，保护幼苗免受阳光直射，使用大量的草或在幼苗周围的枝条上伸展的布。

• Anastasia suggests:
"Let each inhabitant of a large city take a tiny nut from a resinous cedar cone, hold it in his mouth, bathe it in his saliva, plant it at home in earth in a small pot, and water the earth each day. Before watering, let him dip his fingers into the water, his mood should be good, and let him wish himself, and, most importantly, his descendants, his children, good and the consciousness of God. And do this every day.

When the shoot emerges, he can mentally converse with it about what is secret. On a summer, frostless day, at night, the pot with the small shoot should be placed outside among other plants. Let it begin to communicate with the stars, moon, and sun, let it know the rain, the breeze, and the spirit of the grass growing nearby, and it will come back inside again to its friends, its parents. This should be done on many occasions, when you have the desire and the time. This shoot is growing for the ages, after all, a cedar will live for more than five hundred years, it will give descendants, and tell new cedars about the spirits of those who grew them.

When it has grown to thirty centimeters inside, in the early spring the shoot may be planted in the earth. Let the municipal authorities allot at least one square metre to all those who do not own land. And the shoots will be planted from the edge of the city to the riverbank and along the roads, among the houses and in the centre of crowded squares, let the people each look after their shoot, and let them help each other. From all corners of the earth people will come to this city for centuries to look, to touch these sacred objects, to exchange even a word with its happy people."
(From the "Ringing Cedars of Russia" book series)

*阿纳斯塔西娅建议：
“让一个大城市的每个居民从一个树脂的雪松锥上取一个小坚果，把它放在嘴里，用唾液洗澡，在家里用小锅里种植它，然后每天给地球浇水。让他的手指浸入水中，他的心情应该是好的，让他自己，最重要的是，他的后代，他的孩子，善良和上帝的意识。并且每天都这样做。

（来自” 俄罗斯的响起的雪松 “系列丛书）

### 文章原文链接

HOW TO GROW CEDARS FROM NUTS？
http://ecominded.net/articles/how-to-grow-cedars-from-nuts.html

## 4. 如何培育松树（3种方法)

3 种方法:

### 方法1：用幼株培育松树

1. 选择最适宜当地土壤气候的树种。常见的观赏类松树包括雪松，短叶松，欧洲赤松。购买前请咨询卖家，以确定你所在地区的海拔和气候是否适宜该树种生长。
2
选择裸根幼苗或盆栽幼苗。裸根幼苗的种植期应在深秋与冬季，此时松树正值休眠。1而盆栽幼苗则可随时种植，但需注意盛夏时节要对幼苗进行保湿与防晒处理
大多数幼苗在1.7-3.3摄氏度的条件下可以保存几周，但你最好和卖家核对信息，以防你买的树种有其他特殊要求。2
3
为根部浇少量水，必要时修整根系。在种植前请保证树苗根系湿润。浇水不要过多，否则可能会淹死幼株。如果幼株根系结成紧实的球状，或是盘绕容器内壁，请小心整理主根，为根系延展提供空间。3
有些幼苗出售时根部会包有土块。整理根部时请尽量不要剥离这些原土。
4
选择合适的种植地。每棵松树都应该有足够的生长空间，种植地附近不要有附生的小植物或其他树木的根系。种植地采光要好，能保证松树在阴凉时也能照到阳光。
如果你找不到朝阳面的好位置，请参考下文关于人造阴影的说明。
最适宜松树生长的土质是沙子和沃土的混合体。如果土壤板结，请混入适量的有机覆盖物，诸如泥炭藓。4
种植地要排水通畅。一个三十厘米深的树坑，排尽坑内积水的时间以半天最佳。如果排水不畅，你就要考虑铺设排水管了。
5
选择合适的日子种植幼株。不要在大风，干旱或温度高于三十摄氏度的条件下种植幼株。种植当天土壤不能有积水积雪，也不应干旱龟裂。[5]
6
树坑要大过幼株根系，坑底垫上表层土。表层土质量最佳，树坑挖好后垫入大概十厘米厚的表层土。树坑要足够大，保证在垫入表层土后还有足够空间放置幼株。[6]
在挖树坑前联系你的公共设施公司，咨询挖掘地底下的线路情况。
尽量让幼株的种植深度与之前吻合。如果不确定，则尽量不要埋得太深。
7
移除树苗的套袋或容器。尽管容器和套袋都是可以降解的，去除它们还是有利于幼株生长。
8
将幼株根系轻轻放置在坑底，用土盖实。幼株入土后，将树坑回填。用铲子把松土拍实，不要用脚踏。填平树坑，如果当地气候很干燥，可让坑内的土壤稍低于地表，以便水能够滋养根部。[7]
可以在填土的时候叫另一个人帮忙扶住树苗。
9
在树苗无法直立的情况下架设简易支架。这种情况多出现在多风地区。如果树苗可能被风吹倒，用绳子绑几根木棍做个支架，在树苗周围留足空间。[8]不要直接在树身上缠绕绳子。

10
防晒措施。为防止幼株遭到太阳暴晒，你可以用油布或缠布的有色三合板制作遮阳板。种植地选在建筑物或其他植物的阴影下也是明智的选择。阴影应该在树的西侧，因为一天中最热的时候太阳就处在西边。

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## 5. 美国雪松介绍

Cedar-Apple Rust来自西弗吉尼亚大学
Juniperus Virginiana来自密苏里植物园

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# 参考资料汇总

## 松树参考资料

HOW TO GROW CEDAR TREES
https://vmegre.com/en/events/38824/

HOW TO GROW CEDARS FROM NUTS？
http://ecominded.net/articles/how-to-grow-cedars-from-nuts.html

https://www.wukong.com/question/6523089399184359688/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pine

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pine

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