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@zhongdao 2019-12-05T12:31:18.000000Z 字数 44382 阅读 747

如何使用天然真菌改善土壤质量和保护食物森林对抗疾病

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How to Use Native Fungi to Improve Soil Quality and Bulletproof Your Food Forest Against Disease

如何使用天然真菌改善土壤质量和保护食物森林对抗疾病

January 11, 2018 by papprentice 2 Comments

11,2018 by papprentice 2 Comments

*Note: this is a rather long post that goes deep into exploring the mysterious world of fungi and their practical permaculture application. If you want 这是一篇相当长的文章,深入探讨了真菌的神秘世界及其永续栽培的实际应用。 如果你愿意的话**a shorter, a more hands-on* cheatsheet that you can print, fold and put in your pocket as you work on bringing the fungi back to your land 你可以打印,折叠,放在口袋里,当你把真菌带回你的土地click here. 点击这里

Think about the last time you were walking in an old growth forest.

想想上次你在一片古老的森林里散步的情景。

Remember that smell of the fresh forest air, the calming sound of birds, the serene backdrop of leaves gently swaying on the wind and the sun’s rays peeking through the lush canopy? Remember how with each step you took you could feel the twigs and branches crunching and your feet sinking into the soil sponge of old fallen leaves?

还记得那清新的森林空气的味道,安静的鸟叫声,宁静的树叶在风中轻轻摇曳的背景,还有穿过茂密树冠的阳光吗? 还记得每走一步,你都能感觉到树枝和树枝发出的嘎吱嘎吱的响声,还有你的脚陷入旧落叶的泥土海绵里的感觉吗?

Well, what you saw, heard and felt was only the half of the story. Underneath your feet there was a vast fungal network that has a mind of its own. It’s so pervasive that just the imprint of your foot, extending down into the soil, contains enough fungal cells to stretch 300 miles (480km!) if placed end to end.

好吧,你看到的,听到的和感觉到的只是故事的一半。 在你的脚下有一个巨大的真菌网络,它有自己的思想。 它是如此的无孔不入,以至于仅仅是你的脚印,一直延伸到土壤中,就包含了足以延伸300英里(480公里!)的真菌细胞 如果把它们放在一起。

It goes mostly unnoticed, but you can see hints of this sentient network if you look under logs that are lying on the forest ground. The fuzzy, cobweb-like growths you can find there are called mycelium, a fine web of cells which, in one phase of its lifecycle, fruit the mushrooms that we all easily spot.

它通常不被人注意,但是如果你在森林地面上的原木下面看,你可以看到这个有知觉的网络的迹象。 这种模糊的蛛网状的生长物被称为菌丝体,这是一张细胞网,在其生命周期的一个阶段,我们很容易发现蘑菇结出果实。

This overall fungal network has been called nature’s Internet or the ‘Wood Wide Web’. Like the Internet it has a network-like design, where individual fungal cells merge together to form what Paul Stamets would call a neurological network of nature; a network that, like the human brain, is aware and reacts to change, but unlike ourselves, has the long-term health of the host environment in mind.

这整个真菌网络被称为自然界的互联网或“木材万维网”。 像互联网一样,它有一个类似网络的设计,单个真菌细胞融合在一起,形成保罗 · 斯塔梅茨(Paul Stamets)所说的自然神经网络; 这个网络和人类大脑一样,能够感知并对变化做出反应,但与我们不同的是,它能够记住宿主环境的长期健康状况。

Today, with ever-increasing technological progress and deforestation, we are dismantling the neurological network of nature at an accelerated pace, and thus, in a sense, destroying our own life-support ecosystems.

今天,随着技术的不断进步和森林砍伐,我们正在加速破坏自然的神经网络,从而在某种意义上破坏了我们自己赖以生存的生态系统。

Sadly, we humans show little respect to the elders to which we owe our existence. In what way, you may ask? Keep reading, this will blow your mind.

可悲的是,我们人类对长辈几乎没有什么尊重,而这正是我们赖以生存的东西。 你可能会问,以什么方式? 继续读下去,这会让你大吃一惊。

Fungi – the architects of our existence 真菌——我们存在的建筑师

imgFungal mycelium up-close and personal 近距离接触真菌菌丝体

Fungi are ancient organisms, they inhabited the earth billions of years before humans ever came to existence. In fact, you, I and all humans and animals alive today originate from fungi. It’s not just that we share a common ancestor with fungi, they are the common ancestor from which all animals (hey, that’s us) came to be. But wait, there’s more…

真菌是一种古老的生物,它们在人类出现之前几十亿年就已经存在于地球上了。 事实上,你,我,以及今天所有的人类和动物都起源于真菌。 这不仅仅是因为我们和真菌有着共同的祖先,它们是所有动物(嘿,那就是我们)的共同祖先。 但是等等还有更多..。

The kingdom of plants was, and still is, totally dependent on fungi. The first plants to make the transition from the sea to land some 450 million years ago did so without roots, relying totally on fungi to bring nutrients and water for growth. Moreover, as you’re going to learn today, millions of years later, most plants still rely on their fungal partners.

植物界过去和现在都完全依赖真菌。 大约4.5亿年前,第一批从海洋过渡到陆地的植物完全没有根,完全依靠真菌带来养分和水来生长。 此外,正如你今天将要学到的,数百万年后,大多数植物仍然依赖于它们的真菌伙伴。

So, to say that fungi are important to all the complex life on earth is an understatement, they are pivotal! What we know today is that fungi are the grand architects of our environment and, consequently, our existence. They are creating the landscape, engineering our ecosystem for all other organisms to live. Here’s what I mean…

因此,说真菌对地球上所有复杂的生命都很重要是一种轻描淡写的说法,它们是关键! 我们今天所知道的是,真菌是我们环境的伟大建筑师,因此,我们的存在。 他们正在创造景观,改造我们的生态系统,让所有其他生物都能生存。 我的意思是..。

Fungi are generally multi-cellular organisms with a nucleus and a single cell wall made of chitin, and, like all other organisms, they are on the constant lookout for the food. They obtain their nourishment by sending strand-like parts of their body, called hyphae, directly into their food, secreting chemicals to break in down into simpler molecules and then absorbing the juice directly into their cells.

真菌通常是多细胞生物,有一个细胞核和一个由几丁质构成的单细胞壁,和其他生物一样,它们不断地寻找食物。 它们的营养来源于身体中被称为菌丝的链状部分直接进入食物,分泌化学物质分解成简单的分子,然后直接将汁液吸收到细胞中。

The body of a fungus is made of many such threads of hyphae, collectively called the mycelium. So, the mycelium is, in essence, a fusion between a stomach and a brain, it’s aware of its surroundings and responsive to changes in its environment as it searches for food.

真菌的身体由许多这样的菌丝组成,统称为菌丝体。 所以,菌丝体本质上是胃和大脑的融合,它能感知周围环境,并在寻找食物时对周围环境的变化做出反应。

But, since It’s just one cell wall thick and in direct contact with a myriad of hostile organisms, it constantly produces strong antibiotic and antiviral compounds to protect itself and ensure its existence. You’ve heard about penicillin, right? Well, that’s the fungus protecting itself from bacteria…

但是,由于它只有一个厚厚的细胞壁,并且与无数的有害生物直接接触,它不断地产生强大的抗生素和抗病毒化合物来保护自己并确保它的存在。 你听说过青霉素吧? 那是真菌在保护自己免受细菌侵害。

So, by selecting the microbiome of bacteria and other organisms in its surroundings, the mycelium network is creating the habitat and setting the stage for an ecological evolution. First, the selected microbes feed the plants, then plants feed the animals, and, finally, humans get the whole ecosystem services served up on a plate.

因此,通过选择周围环境中细菌和其他生物的微生物组,菌丝网络正在创造栖息地,为生态进化搭建舞台。 首先,被选中的微生物喂养植物,然后植物喂养动物,最后,人类把整个生态系统服务放在一个盘子里。

Ultimately, the mycelium prepares its immediate environment for its benefit but creates the entire soil food web, with trillions upon trillions of critters that consume organic matter and each other releasing nutrients that fuel the growth of mycelium, plants, animals and the entire ecosystem. I told you this was going to blow your mind…

最终,菌丝体为了自身的利益而为当下的环境做好准备,但同时也创造了整个土壤食物网,数以万亿计的生物消耗有机物质,相互释放营养物质,这些营养物质为菌丝体、植物、动物和整个生态系统的生长提供燃料。 我告诉过你这会让你大吃一惊。

That’s why, if you want to engage in any landscape regeneration, you’ll need help from fungi. In this post, you’ll learn how to work in harmony with them to establish your thriving food forest.

这就是为什么,如果你想进行任何景观再生,你需要来自真菌的帮助。 在这篇文章中,你将学习如何与他们和谐共处,建立你繁荣的食物森林。

First, however, let’s consider the fungi you’ll need…

首先,让我们考虑一下你需要的真菌。

Types of fungi you’ll need in your food forest 你在食物森林中需要的真菌类型

We place fungi into four basic categories: saprophytic (decomposing), parasitic, mycorrhizal, and endophytic, all depending upon how they nourish themselves. But, there are some species that employ more than one strategy, making them difficult to categorize.

我们把真菌分为四个基本类别: 腐生(分解)、寄生、菌根和内生,所有这些都取决于它们如何滋养自己。 但是,有些物种使用了不止一种策略,这使得它们很难分类。

Although parasitic and endophytic fungi play an important role in plant and ecosystem health, in this guide I will concentrate on the benefits of decomposing and mycorrhizal fungi, since we can cultivate them easily and understand them far better than the other two categories.

虽然寄生真菌和内生真菌在植物和生态系统的健康方面起着重要作用,但在本指南中,我将集中讨论分解真菌和菌根真菌的好处,因为我们可以很容易地培育它们,并且比其他两类更好地理解它们。

Decomposing fungi: nature’s recyclers 分解真菌: 自然的循环利用者

imgOyster mushrooms decomposing wood 平菇分解木材

Decomposing fungi are those we humans primarily cultivate. You are probably already familiar with many gourmet and medicinal mushrooms, such as shiitake, oyster, reishi, lion’s mane, and chaga, to name but a few. Very tasty and healthy indeed, thank you fungi!

分解真菌是我们人类主要培育的。 你可能已经熟悉了许多美食家和药用真菌,比如香菇、牡蛎、灵芝、狮鬃和夏加等等。 非常美味和健康的确,谢谢你真菌!

These fungi are wood decomposers and generally operate on the soil surface. So, when organic matter falls from the canopy of trees and plants overhead onto the forest floor, the decomposers that are in the soil and on the surface process this newly available food.

这些真菌是木材分解者,通常作用于土壤表面。 所以,当有机物从树木和植物的树冠上落到森林地面上时,土壤和地表的分解者就会处理这些新获得的食物。

From dead plants, these fungi recycle carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus and minerals into nutrients for living plants, insects, and other organisms sharing that habitat. They play a key role in the operations of soil food webs.

从死去的植物中,这些真菌将碳、氢、氮、磷和矿物质循环为活着的植物、昆虫和其他共享栖息地的生物提供养分。 它们在土壤食物网的运作中起着关键作用。

Building soils is the primary outcome of the activities of these saprophytic fungi. They create brown rot, remaining of the wood, which acts as a nutrient sponge that holds a wealth of roots, microbes, insects, and water. Remember that sponge-like topsoil when you were in the forest? That’s it!

建筑土壤是这些腐生真菌活动的主要结果。 他们创造褐腐病,剩余的木材,作为一个养分海绵,持有财富的根,微生物,昆虫和水。 还记得你在森林里时海绵状的表层土吗? 就是这样!

We’ll work in partnership with these fungi to kick-start the entire process of landscape regeneration and soil creation on your land…

我们将与这些真菌合作,在您的土地上启动景观再生和土壤创造的整个过程..。

Mycorrhizal fungi: fungus and plant partnerships 菌根真菌: 真菌与植物的伙伴关系

imgMycorrhizal fungi attaching itself to the root tips of a plant 附着在植物根尖上的菌根真菌

Next up are the soil fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi work in unison with the root systems of almost every plant on our planet. Some 80-95% of all terrestrial plants form symbiotic relationships with these fungi. Without these mycorrhizal relationships, most plants would probably not exist. Let that sink in for a second…

接下来是土壤真菌。 菌根真菌与我们星球上几乎所有植物的根系协同工作。 大约80-95% 的陆生植物与这些真菌形成共生关系。 没有这些菌根关系,大多数植物可能不会存在。 让我想一想... ..。

In these relationships, the host plants supply the mycorrhizal fungi carbon-rich sugars – the product of plant photosynthesis – and, in return, the fungi decompose plant litter and soil pools (soil particles, rocks…) to help roots obtain the water and nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, trace minerals) that the plants require.

在这些关系中,寄主植物提供菌根真菌富含碳的糖——植物光合作用的产物——作为回报,真菌分解植物枯枝落叶和土壤池(土壤颗粒,岩石...) ,以帮助根部获得植物所需的水和养分(磷,氮,微量矿物质)。

As these fungi grow into the soil, their long-threaded hyphae extend in all directions, creating a fungal network that enables a plant’s roots to access 100,000 times more soil than it would be able on its own. All the plants that are in the local environment can tap into this mycorrhizal network, then the fungi mastermind the whole scenario by redistributing nutrients where they are most needed and even give plants the ability to communicate with each other via this biological communication network.

随着这些真菌在土壤中生长,它们长长的菌丝向四面八方伸展,形成了一个真菌网络,使植物的根部能够接触到比它自身多10万倍的土壤。 所有生活在当地环境中的植物都可以利用这种菌根网络,然后真菌通过在最需要它们的地方重新分配营养物质来策划整个场景,甚至使植物能够通过这种生物通讯网络相互交流。

Every plant that is involved in this mycorrhizal relationship is better able to supply its nutrients, withstand drought and other environmental stresses, root pathogens, and other diseases. Mycorrhizae also improve soil structure and give it porosity, aeration, water retention, and, ultimately, a platform for a diverse range of lifeforms.

参与这种菌根关系的每一种植物都能更好地提供其营养物质,抵御干旱和其他环境压力、根部病原体和其他疾病。 菌根还可以改善土壤结构,使土壤具有孔隙度、通气性、保水性,并最终为各种生命形式提供一个平台。

Mycorrhizal fungi are commonly divided into two groups according to how the fungal cells associate with plant cells, namely endomycorrhizal (the hyphae of fungi penetrate the cell wall) and ectomycorrhizal (the hyphae of fungi do not penetrate all the way through the cell wall). Now pay attention here, this is important, here’s what I mean.

根据真菌细胞与植物细胞的结合方式,菌根真菌通常分为内菌根(菌丝穿透细胞壁)和外菌根(菌丝不穿透细胞壁)两类。 现在请注意,这很重要,这就是我的意思。

The endomycorrhizal (endo) type most often associate with the roots of vegetables, grasses, flowers, shrubs, and fruit and ornamental trees: some 95% of all plants in the world are compatible with these fungi. The largest functioning group is the arbuscular type of mycorrhizae (AM) and these AM fungi are the ones you’ll need for the roots of your fruit trees and shrubs.

内生菌根类型最常与蔬菜、草、花、灌木、水果和观赏树木的根相联系: 世界上约95% 的植物与这些真菌相容。 最大的功能群是丛枝菌根(AM) ,这些 AM 真菌是你需要为你的果树和灌木的根。

The ectomycorrhizae (EM) always work in partnership with woody plants, generally trees, primarily with conifers, but also some deciduous trees such as oaks. Only around 5% of terrestrial plants form ectomycorrhizal associations. Many of the EM fungi are mushroom-forming species, including highly prized edibles such as chanterelles, morels and matsutake, and truffles. These are the fungi you’ll need for your nut trees.

外生菌根通常与木本植物合作,一般是树木,主要是针叶树,但也有一些落叶乔木,如橡树。 只有大约5% 的陆生植物形成外生菌根群丛。 许多 EM 真菌是形成蘑菇的物种,包括珍贵的食用菌,如鸡油菌、羊肚菌、松茸和块菌。 这些是你种坚果树所需要的真菌。

Okay, so now you understand why fungi are important, so why would you ever try to establish a food forest without your fungal friends? Right, let’s look at some practical steps to introducing and working with them on your land…

好了,现在你明白为什么真菌很重要了,那么为什么你要在没有真菌朋友的情况下建立食物森林呢? 好了,让我们来看一些实际的步骤,介绍和工作与他们在您的土地..。

How to use native fungi as your ally in your food forest – the forest fungi protocol 如何使用天然真菌作为你的盟友在你的食物森林-森林真菌协议

imgWe get our inspiration for regenerating the soil and establishing a food forest from nature 我们从自然中得到了更新土壤和建立食物森林的灵感

The dream of a food forest and an abundance of food from a healthy, self-sustaining, low maintenance stand of trees and shrubs is impossible without fungi. No food forest is complete without our fungal partners.

没有真菌,我们就不可能梦想有一片食物森林和一片健康、自给自足、维护费用低廉的树木和灌木林带来丰富的食物。 没有我们的真菌伙伴,食物森林就不完整。

Our goal with a food forest is to imitate nature and how trees and shrubs grow in the wild. Currently, what most of us do is successfully imitate the structure of a forest edge with trees, shrubs and other perennials of varying heights planted in guilds. But, that’s only half of the story.

我们建造食物森林的目的是模仿自然,以及树木和灌木是如何在野外生长的。 目前,我们大多数人所做的是成功地模仿森林边缘的结构与树木,灌木和其他不同高度的多年生植物种植在公会。 但是,这只是故事的一半。

What is as important as imitating the structure right is replicating what takes place in the forest soil with the fungi and the rest of the soil food web. While we won’t neglect the rest of the microbes, here we’ll primarily be focused on fungi, since according to Michael Phillips who wrote The Holistic Orchard, the food forest soil ideally contains ten times more fungi than bacteria.

与正确模仿结构一样重要的是,利用真菌和土壤食物网的其他部分,复制森林土壤中发生的事情。 虽然我们不会忽视其他的微生物,但是这里我们主要关注的是真菌,因为根据《整体果园》的作者迈克尔 · 菲利普斯的说法,食物森林土壤理想含有的真菌数量是细菌的十倍。

So, in the process of reintroducing the fungi to our land, we’re going to observe what nature is already doing and mimic, amplify and repeat it in our food forest and, in a sense, help nature reclaim what it lost.

因此,在将真菌重新引入我们的土地的过程中,我们将观察大自然已经在做什么,并模仿、扩大和重复它在我们的食物森林,从某种意义上说,帮助大自然收回它失去的东西。

The quickest and easiest way to succeed in introducing the fungi into your soil is to use native fungi from your local ecosystem. Think about it, they are already there in your neighborhood and it would anyway be only a matter of time when they would arrive on your land – so why not give them a head start?

将真菌引入土壤的最快捷和最简单的方法是利用当地生态系统中的天然真菌。 想想吧,他们已经在你的邻居那里,无论如何,他们到达你的土地只是一个时间问题,所以为什么不给他们一个领先的开始?

But more importantly, as Peter McCoy would say, local strains of fungi show local resilience, and they are well adapted to your climate and to the habitat that’s teeming with competitors (remember the engineering the microbiome thing from the introduction?). By introducing them we are working with the natural tendencies of the land.

但更重要的是,正如彼得 · 麦考伊所说,当地的真菌菌株表现出了当地的适应能力,它们很好地适应了当地的气候和充满竞争者的栖息地(还记得引入微生物群的工程学吗?) . 通过介绍他们,我们正在与土地的自然趋势合作。

Okay, so, with that in mind, here are the steps you need to take to successfully transplant and grow native fungi on your land:

好了,考虑到这一点,以下是在你的土地上成功移植和培育本土真菌所需要的步骤:

Step 1. Do the site prep work, earthworks and covercropping in order to start creating favorable fungal conditions (shade, moisture, food).

第一步。 为了开始创造有利的真菌条件(阴凉,潮湿,食物) ,做好场地准备工作,土方工程和覆盖种植。

Step 2. Investigate your local forest and find sources of decomposing and mycorrhizal fungi you can use to inoculate your food forest soil.

第二步。 调查你当地的森林,找到腐解和菌根真菌的来源,你可以用来接种你的食物森林土壤。

Step 3. Introduce the saprophytic fungi to your land to kick-start the fungal activity and soil creation process.

第三步。 引进腐生真菌到您的土地,以启动真菌活动和土壤创造过程。

Step 4. Introduce the mycorrhizal fungi to create a sentient underground network that will help your food forest plants to grow and thrive.

第四步。 介绍菌根真菌,创建一个有知觉的地下网络,将有助于您的食品森林植物生长和茁壮成长。

Step 5. Make a compost tea from a healthy forest soil and spread it all over to bring other native microorganisms that will help fungi and plants grow.

第五步。 从健康的森林土壤中制作一种混合茶,然后将其涂抹到所有地方,带来其他本地微生物,这些微生物将有助于真菌和植物的生长。

Step 6. Keep adding woody debris in the form of mulch, logs, and hugelbeds to feed the fungi and ensure good growing conditions.

第六步。 继续以覆盖物、原木和土壤的形式添加木质残渣来喂养菌类,确保良好的生长条件。

Right, so let’s begin!

好了,让我们开始吧!

Download the free ‘forest fungi protocol’ cheatsheet. Just print it, fold it a*****nd put in your pocket as you work on bringing the fungi back to your land to improve soil quality.* 下载免费的‘森林真菌协议'作弊表。 只要打印出来,折叠起来,放进口袋里,就可以把真菌带回土地,改善土壤质量

Step 1. Do the site prep work, earthworks and covercropping so that you start creating favourable fungal conditions (shade, moisture, food) 第一步。 做好场地准备工作,土方工程和覆盖种植,这样你就可以开始创造有利的真菌条件(阴凉,潮湿,食物)

imgCovercropping (perennial rye and red clover) a swath for the tree-row-to be, these are the beginnings of my food forest. 覆盖种植(多年生黑麦和红三叶草)一条留给树木的带子,这些是我食物森林的开端

Now, depending on your site conditions, your overall fungi strategy might vary, but here I’ll just assume that you’re starting from scratch, with bare land, a pasture or, worse, a depleted cornfield.

现在,根据你的地理条件,你的整体真菌策略可能会有所不同,但在这里,我只是假设你是从零开始,在裸露的土地,一个牧场,或者,更糟糕的,一个枯竭的玉米地。

Bare land and disturbed soils are dominated by bacteria (if there is any biology left after the years of abuse that is) and you’ll want to start the transition towards a more fungal-dominated soil by creating a more fungi-friendly environment.

裸露的土地和受到破坏的土壤主要是由细菌(如果有任何生物后,多年的虐待是) ,你会希望开始过渡到一个更加真菌主导的土壤创造一个更加真菌友好的环境。

Fungi need shade, air, moisture and food, and, even before they are introduced into the system, you want to start establishing favourable fungal conditions. At this stage, you can do that by earthworks (if necessary) and covercropping.

真菌需要阴凉,空气,水分和食物,甚至在它们被引入系统之前,你就要开始建立有利的真菌条件。 在这个阶段,你可以通过土方工程(如果必要的话)和复种来做到这一点。

You see, some sort of subsurface flow of moisture, even if it is only occasional, goes a long way in fueling the mycelium and, of course, plant growth. Water propels fungal lifecycles and plant photosynthesis, drought stress shuts down overall plant and fungi metabolism and subsequent carbon trading between them. That’s definitely not what you want…

你看,某种表层下的水分流动,即使只是偶尔发生,在很大程度上为菌丝体提供养分,当然,还有植物的生长提供养分。 水推动真菌的生命周期和植物的光合作用,干旱胁迫关闭了整个植物和真菌的新陈代谢以及随后它们之间的碳交易。 这绝对不是你想要的..。

Some sort of earthworks might be necessary to slow, spread and sink that water so it doesn’t just run-off to your neighbor’s place before infiltrating into the soil and fueling that fungi growth. If you can’t perform any earthworks, at minimum, what you can do is to set up some drip irrigation systems.

一些土方工程可能是必要的,以减缓,扩散和下沉的水,以便它不只是径流到你的邻居的地方,然后渗入土壤,并加速真菌的生长。 如果你不能完成任何土方工程,至少,你可以做的是建立一些滴灌系统。

Now, as you’re performing earthworks or some soil disturbance, what follows naturally when soil is exposed is the spreading seed of cover crops. Cover crops will help reduce the competition from unwanted plants, improve the soil and help with the fungal progression.

现在,当你正在进行土方工程或者一些土壤扰动时,当土壤暴露出来后,自然而然地接下来就是覆盖作物的播种。 覆盖作物将有助于减少不必要的植物的竞争,改善土壤和帮助真菌的发展。

So, following your initial soil disturbance, either by earthworks or just by tillage, stir in a mix of oats, red clover and tillage radish. This recipe comes from Michael Phillips’ new book the Mycorrhizal Planet and as he explains oats serve as a biomass and a nurse crop in sheltering the smaller clover seedlings, tillage radish increases soil’s organic matter content and drills deep to take up its share of the space between clover plants, while red clover fixes nitrogen and has a strong affinity for mycorrhizal fungi.

因此,在你最初的土壤干扰之后,不管是通过土方工程还是仅仅通过耕作,混合搅拌燕麦、红三叶草和萝卜。 这个配方来自迈克尔 · 菲利普斯的新书《菌根星球》 ,当他解释燕麦作为一种生物量和护理作物来保护小三叶草幼苗时,耕作萝卜增加了土壤的有机质含量,并且深深地占据了三叶草植株之间的空间份额,而红三叶草固氮并且对菌根真菌有很强的亲和力。

The cover crops are here performing several important roles. By cutting or leaving them in place to decompose, we’re building organic matter and clover root systems are in place, improving the soil fertility and waiting for their mycorrhizal friends to arrive. Also, by introducing plants of various heights, we are creating favourable growing conditions for fungi above ground by providing shade, with humidity levels increasing nearer to the ground.

覆盖作物在这里扮演着几个重要的角色。 通过切割或者留在原地等待腐烂,我们建立了有机物质和三叶草的根系,改善了土壤肥力,等待它们的菌根朋友到来。 同时,通过引进不同高度的植物,我们为地面上的真菌创造了有利的生长条件,提供了遮荫,使湿度水平提高到接近地面。

Step 2. Investigate your local forest and find sources of decomposing and mycorrhizal fungi you can use to inoculate your food forest soil 第二步。 调查你当地的森林,找到腐解和菌根真菌的来源,你可以用来接种你的食物森林土壤

imgGoing into my local forest and spending a day harvesting chestnuts and fruiting mycorrhizal mushrooms is a day well lived in my book. 在我的书中,走进当地的森林,花一天时间采摘栗子和结果子的菌根蘑菇是很好的生活

Okay, so now when you’re improving your soil and have to wait, use the time to go to your local or regional forest and survey it for native fungi species. These fungi and other resident microbes living in the soil are nature’s recommendations for your food forest soil restoration.

好的,那么现在当你在改良你的土壤并且不得不等待的时候,利用这段时间去你当地或者区域的森林里调查一下当地的真菌物种。 这些真菌和其他生活在土壤中的微生物是大自然对你的食物森林土壤恢复的建议。

For this entire process of introducing the fungi from the wild, you’ll have to learn how to find, transplant and then nurture wild spawn or mycelium. You can grow wild spawn by transplanting wild patches of mycelium, from germinating mushroom spores, and from regrowing stem butts. We are searching for all three plus the rest of the soil food web team…

在从野外引入真菌的整个过程中,你必须学会如何发现、移植和培育野生菌种或菌丝体。 你可以通过移植野生菌丝体、萌发的蘑菇孢子和再生的茎蒂来培育野生菌种。 我们正在搜寻这三个人以及土壤食物网小组的其他成员。

Putting this into context for your food forest, and type of fungi you’ll need, specifically you’re looking for:

把这些放到你的食物森林中,以及你需要的真菌类型中,特别是你正在寻找的:

Decomposing fungi are easy to find in a forest, almost anything that is on the forest floor is subject to these decomposition fungi. Practically any fallen tree or piece of wood that has been lying on the ground for a few months will host mycelium in it or on the underside and, in all likelihood, inside the wood.

分解真菌很容易在森林中找到,几乎任何在森林地面上的东西都受这些分解真菌的影响。 实际上,任何倒下的树木或在地上躺了几个月的木头都会在里面或者在下面,而且很可能在木头里面寄生菌丝体。

The mycelium of these fungi pulp the wood over time, slowly digesting its primary components, lignin and cellulose. Now, identifying mycelium without its mushroom is difficult, but you can be confident if you find a pile of decomposing wood on the forest floor and you dig into it, you’ve found your decomposing fungi spawn.

随着时间的推移,这些真菌的菌丝体将木材变成浆状,慢慢地消化其主要成分木质素和纤维素。 现在,没有蘑菇的菌丝体很难鉴别,但是如果你在森林地面上发现一堆腐烂的木头,并深入挖掘,你就会发现腐烂的真菌菌种。

Mycorrhizal fungi are soil fungi. While we might find their mycelium beneath fallen logs, or indeed in piles of leaves or wood twigs and chips, to be sure you obtain your mycorrhiza you need to look for specific types of plants and geographic locations that might have these symbiotic fungi.

菌根真菌是土壤真菌。 虽然我们可能会在倒下的原木下面找到它们的菌丝体,或者确实在成堆的树叶、树枝和木片中找到,但是为了确保你获得菌根,你需要寻找可能存在这些共生真菌的特定类型的植物和地理位置。

Here, we again have to make a clear distinction between endo and ecto mycorrhizal fungi, since each are more suitable for symbiosis with different type of trees. The roots of fruit trees are considered to be entirely endo; arbuscular (AM), while nut trees are mostly ecto (EM), so that’s why we can’t just grab any type of mycorrhizae.

在这里,我们必须再次明确区分内生菌根真菌和外生菌根真菌,因为它们更适合与不同类型的树木共生。 果树的根被认为完全是内生的,丛枝(AM) ,而坚果树大部分是外生的(EM) ,所以这就是为什么我们不能只抓住任何类型的菌根。

For your AM, the ones for your fruit trees, there’s no better place to go and find your appropriate inoculum than healthy fruit trees in a wild setting. If you can’t find a wild fruit tree, a forest-edge ecosystem with berries, goldenrod, meadowsweet, and the like will feature a diverse mix of suitable fungi.

对于你的上午,那些为你的果树,没有更好的地方去找到你的合适的接种物比健康的果树在野外设置。 如果你找不到一棵野生果树,一个森林边缘的生态系统,里面有浆果、一枝黄花、绣线菊等等,那么这个生态系统就会有各种各样的适合的真菌。

AM fungi reproduce asexually below ground by producing spores so you won’t find any mushrooms above ground. But, by digging some 4 inches (10 cm) deep you’ll be gathering spores as well as hyphae fragments and that’s the soil duff you’re looking for…

Am 真菌在地下通过产生孢子进行无性繁殖,所以你不会在地上找到任何蘑菇。 但是,通过挖掘4英寸(10厘米)深的土壤,你将收集到孢子和菌丝碎片,这就是你要找的土壤。

Unlike AM fungi, most EM fungi, the ones for your nut trees, reproduce sexually, via fruiting bodies: mushrooms, puffballs, and truffles, making them easier to spot and obtain the spores and wild spawn.

与 AM 真菌不同,大多数 EM 真菌---- 你的坚果树上的真菌---- 通过子实体有性繁殖: 蘑菇、马勃和块菌,使它们更容易发现并获得孢子和野生菌种。

To find your sources of ectomycorrhizal fungi, look for a healthy stand of big old hardwood or conifer trees, think deciduous if your nut trees will shed leaves, and think coniferous if your nut trees are evergreen. If the mushroom conditions are right you’ll probably find fruiting mushrooms there. If not, then simply scraping the ground, again some 4 inches (10 cm) deep, will provide you with hyphae fragments.

为了找到外生菌根真菌的来源,找一片健康的阔叶树或针叶树林,如果你的坚果树会落叶,那么就考虑落叶树,如果你的坚果树是长青的,那么就考虑针叶树。 如果蘑菇的条件是正确的,你可能会发现那里结果的蘑菇。 如果没有,那么简单地刮地面,再次约4英寸(10厘米)深,将提供你菌丝碎片。

Finally, you’ll also find your healthy living soil containing other soil food web microorganisms in this stand of big old healthy forest trees. This is the soil that hasn’t been disturbed for a long time. Just a few scoops of this soil should be enough for making the compost tea later.

最后,你还会发现你的健康生活土壤包含其他土壤食物网微生物在这个大的老健康森林树木的立场。 这是很长时间没有被翻动过的土壤。 只要几勺这种土壤就足够以后做堆肥茶了。

All right, with that, you’re ready to start bringing fungi to your future food forest site…

好了,有了这些,你就可以开始把真菌带到你未来的食物森林地带了..。

Download the free ‘forest fungi protocol’ cheatsheet. Just print it, fold it a*****nd put in your pocket as you work on bringing the fungi back to your land to improve soil quality.* 下载免费的‘森林真菌协议'作弊表。 只要打印出来,折叠起来,放进口袋里,就可以把真菌带回土地,改善土壤质量

Step 3. Introduce the saprophytic fungi to your land to kick-start the fungal activity and soil creation process 第三步。 引进腐生真菌到您的土地,以启动真菌活动和土壤创造过程

imgGathering and transporting decomposing wood from a nearby forest. I’m lucky that the forest adjoins my property and I’m sure a little bit of biomass democratization won’t hurt it. We’re are fighting the same battle anyway… 从附近的森林中收集和运输分解的木材。 我很幸运,森林毗邻我的财产,我确信一点点的生物量民主化不会伤害它。 反正我们在打同一场仗

Okay, so in the last step you’ve found your sources of decomposing fungi in the nearby forest, and, as discussed, almost anything that is on the forest floor is subject to these decomposition fungi.

好的,在最后一步,你已经在附近的森林里找到了分解真菌的来源,而且,如前所述,几乎所有在森林地面上的东西都受到这些分解真菌的影响。

By bringing this decomposing wood (logs and branches) that’s infused with wild spawn and fruiting mushrooms onto the site, you’re actually inoculating your site with decomposing fungi and starting to rejuvenate your land.

通过将这些灌注了野生菌种和蘑菇果实的分解木材(原木和树枝)带到这个地方,你实际上是在你的地盘上接种了分解真菌,并开始让你的土地恢复活力。

You see, in forested land, after catastrophes strike, the saprophytes (the decomposing fungi) lead the way toward renewal by supporting the construction of complex life-supporting soils. These fungi decompose and recycle dead wood, building humus and freeing up nutrients locked in the wood, making them available to the rest of the soil food web – bacteria, protozoa, insects, plants, animals, and mycorrhizal fungi.

你看,在森林地带,在灾害袭击之后,腐生生物(分解真菌)通过支持复杂的生命支持土壤的建设,引导着更新的道路。 这些真菌分解并循环利用死木,形成腐殖质,释放出锁定在木材中的营养物质,使它们对土壤的其他部分——细菌、原生动物、昆虫、植物、动物和菌根真菌——有效。

By recycling woody debris and creating the soil, these pioneering fungi are setting the stage for all other subsequent generations of organisms. Once other organisms enter the landscape and they become engaged in the soil, nature will steer the habitat on the path toward self-healing.

通过回收木质残骸和创造土壤,这些开拓性的真菌为所有其他后代的生物体奠定了基础。 一旦其他生物进入这片土地,它们开始进入土壤,大自然将引导这片栖息地走上自我修复的道路。

Here we want to emulate that process; your land is stressed, once it was a forest, but now it needs rejuvenation. By bringing the inoculated woody debris and encouraging selected saprophytes in this stressed terrain you’re creating a favourable environment for the rest of the soil food web organisms and also building organic matter in soil that helps to improve moisture absorption, bolster disease resistance, reduce erosion…

在这里,我们想要模仿这个过程; 你们的土地曾经是一片森林,但现在它需要复兴。 通过带来接种过的木质残骸,并鼓励选择腐生植物生长在这种受压地形,你正在为土壤中的其他食物链生物创造一个有利的环境,同时在土壤中建立有机物质,有助于提高水分吸收,增强抗病能力,减少侵蚀... ..。

According to Paul Stamets, the best saprophytic fungi for helping an injured (forest) ecosystem recover are turkey tails, woodlovers, oysters, garden giants, and psilocybes (yes, magic mushrooms!). If, like me, you’re living in a temperate climate, then these will be your go-to decomposing fungi species. They love bacteria and attract them as these mushrooms start to fruit and they grow with so much vigor that they suppress any unwanted parasitic invaders by occupying their niche, thus protecting and benefiting your food forest growth.

根据 Paul Stamets 的说法,帮助受损(森林)生态系统恢复的最好的腐生真菌是火鸡尾巴、木材爱好者、牡蛎、园艺巨人和裸盖菇(是的,神奇蘑菇!) . 如果你像我一样生活在温带里,那么这些就是你首选的分解真菌物种。 它们喜欢细菌,并在蘑菇开始结果时吸引它们,它们以极大的活力生长,通过占据它们的生态位来抑制任何有害的寄生入侵者,从而保护并有利于你的食物森林的生长。

Saprophytic fungi growing in the wild are some of the easiest to recognize and transplant. The only problem is acquiring enough of the woody debris that’s infused with mycelium. Obviously, there is a lot of debris in the woods, but you’ll need piles of the stuff.

生长在野外的腐生真菌是最容易识别和移植的真菌之一。 唯一的问题是获得足够的木质残骸注入菌丝体。 显然,树林里有很多碎片,但是你需要成堆的碎片。

What I do is, every time I’m the forest gathering my firewood, I make a huge pile of leftover branches, cut through the pile multiple times with my chainsaw to make them smaller, more digestible and quicker to decompose, and then leave them there on the floor to become ‘infected’ with fungi for at least 2 years. After a while, the pile will decompose, the branches will start to crumble, and you’ll obtain your perfect inoculant filled with saprophytic and even mycorrhizal fungi.

我所做的是,每次我在森林里拾柴火的时候,我都会堆起一大堆剩下的树枝,用我的链锯把这些树枝锯断好几次,使它们变得更小、更易消化、更快分解,然后把它们放在地板上,让它们在至少两年的时间里感染真菌。 过一会儿,这堆东西就会腐烂,树枝就会开始碎裂,你就会得到一个完美的接种剂,里面装满了腐生菌甚至是菌根真菌。

Once you have the mycelium of the saprophytic fungi on your site, it’s all about giving it a new, friendly environment – something I’ll discuss in greater detail in Step 6. Before that, however, let’s introduce mycorrhizal fungi and the rest of the forest flora and fauna.

一旦你的网站上有腐生真菌的菌丝体,这一切都是为了给它一个新的、友好的环境——这些我将在第6步中更详细地讨论。 然而,在此之前,让我们介绍菌根真菌和其他森林动植物。

Step 4. Introduce the mycorrhizal fungi to create a 第四步。 介绍菌根真菌创建一个 sentient underground network that will help your food forest plants grow and thrive 有知觉的地下网络,将帮助你的食物森林植物生长和茁壮成长

imgDipping hazel roots into an ectomycorrhizae spore-rich slurry. The best time to introduce your mycorrhizal fungi is during planting. 将榛根浸入富含孢子的外生菌根泥浆。 最好的时间介绍您的菌根真菌是在种植

Okay, so now you have decomposing fungi working the surface, decomposing the woody material, kick-starting the fungal activity, and paving the way for the rest of the fungi and microbes.

好的,现在你有分解真菌的工作表面,分解木质材料,启动真菌的活动,并为其余的真菌和微生物铺平道路。

Now you should start introducing the mycorrhizal fungi into the soil to create that sentient network that will help your plants with an increased uptake of nutrients, resistance to drought, and resistance to root pathogens… All that good stuff you are not otherwise getting.

现在你应该开始在土壤中引入菌根真菌来创造一个有知觉的网络,这个网络将帮助你的植物增加对营养物质的吸收、抗旱性和对根部病原体的抗性... ... 所有这些好的东西你是不会得到的。

The hyphae of these fungi – in comparison to decomposing fungi, which are generally operating on the surface – grow long distances underground, wherever there is food and wherever there are plant roots. It’s all so pervasive underground that it can connect all of your plants into a single mycelial network which even allows communication between the plants. That’s what we are aiming for…

这些真菌的菌丝——与通常在表面活动的分解真菌相比——在有食物的地方和有植物根的地方长得很远。 它是如此的深入地下,它可以连接所有的植物到一个单一的菌丝网络,甚至允许植物之间的交流。 这就是我们的目标。

These fungi can make up as much as 50% of the microbial mass in a given volume of soil. Their presence not just helps plants to thrive, but it also greatly improves the soil organic matter content, soil aggregation, aeration, and drainage.

这些真菌可以构成多达50% 的微生物群体在一定体积的土壤。 它们的存在不仅有助于植物茁壮成长,而且还极大地改善了土壤有机质含量、土壤聚集性、通气性和排水性。

Let’s now look at the different ways of introducing these fungi to your food forest, again paying special attention to AM and EM fungi, since they connect to different types of trees: AM with fruit trees, EM with nut trees.

现在让我们来看看将这些真菌引入食物森林的不同方式,再次特别关注 AM 和 EM 真菌,因为它们与不同类型的树木相连: AM 与果树相连,EM 与坚果树相连。

Inoculation with wild spawn — the easiest method — for both AM or EM fungi 接种野生菌种ーー AM 真菌和 EM 真菌最简便的接种方法

The easiest way of transplanting mycelium is to simply scoop it up from your “secret location” in the forest and move it to your food forest. If you place the transplanted mycelium, so-called virgin spawn, into contact with the right mixture of materials, they will regrow, expanding the colony. Again, AM and EM have different preferences, so make sure to match them to fruit trees and nut trees respectively.

移植菌丝体最简单的方法就是从你在森林中的“秘密地点”把它铲起来,然后运到你的食物森林。 如果你把移植的菌丝体,也就是所谓的处女菌种,与正确的混合物接触,它们就会再生,扩大菌落。 同样,AM 和 EM 有不同的偏好,所以要确保它们分别与果树和坚果树相匹配。

It really doesn’t take much soil to introduce these hyphae fragments into the ground back home. Michael Phillips recommends one scoop of soil duff per tree or shrub will do, whether that’s at the time of planting or tucked near roots beneath a recently mulched tree.

要把这些菌丝碎片带回家里的土地,并不需要太多的土壤。 迈克尔 · 菲利普斯建议每棵树或灌木可以挖一铲土,不管是在种植的时候还是在最近被覆盖的树的根部附近。

Inoculation with mushrooms and mushroom spores — for EM fungi 用蘑菇和蘑菇孢子接种 EM 真菌

This is a method for inoculating your nut trees with EM fungi, and it’s relatively easy for a beginner. Here, you simply collect the fruiting bodies, such as mushrooms, of EM fungi from your nearby forest and use it as propagules, either by using its spores diluted in water or the whole fruiting body.

这是一种用 EM 真菌接种坚果树的方法,对于初学者来说相对简单。 在这里,你只需要从附近的森林中收集 EM 真菌的子实体,比如蘑菇,然后用它作为繁殖体,或者用它的孢子在水中稀释,或者用整个子实体。

So pick your mushrooms, remove the spore-bearing surfaces from the fruiting bodies, crush them, and immerse in water and some clay. Thousands of spores will be washed off, resulting in rich inoculum for your nut tree seedlings. A spore-mass slurry from a single mushroom, diluted in a 5-gallon (20 l) bucket of water, can inoculate a hundred or more seedlings. Hint: you can also use the same slurry to inoculate your seeds.

因此,采摘你的蘑菇,去除子实体上的孢子表面,粉碎它们,然后浸泡在水和一些粘土中。 成千上万的孢子将被冲洗掉,为你的坚果树幼苗提供丰富的接种物。 单一蘑菇产生的孢子团泥,稀释在5加仑(20升)一桶水中,可以接种100棵或更多的幼苗。 提示: 你也可以使用同样的泥浆来接种你的种子。

Tossing spores using water as a carrier on the ground above the root zones of an already established tree is another method that takes little time and effort. Moreover, if you really can’t be bothered with making the spore slurry, the simplest, but maybe not the most effective, way of inoculating would be to simply cut the fruiting bodies into small pieces and mix them into the soil when you’re planting your trees.

利用水作为载体在已经生长的树木根部以上的地面上抛撒孢子是另一种不需要花费时间和精力的方法。 此外,如果你真的不愿意制作孢子泥浆,最简单但也许不是最有效的接种方法,就是简单地把子实体切成小块,然后在种树的时候把它们混入土壤中。

Inoculation with cultivated root fragments – for AM fungi 用栽培根段接种 AM 真菌

In this method, which admittedly requires a bit of practice and knowledge, you’re going to cultivate the AM fungi. Put simply, you’re going to take the soil containing spores or the mycelium you found in the wild, grow it in a pot throughout the season and then harvest the roots and the mycelium at the end of season. These colonized root fragments are the inoculant you apply the following year to your fruit trees.

无可否认,这种方法需要一些实践和知识,在这种方法中,你将培养 AM 真菌。 简单地说,你要把你在野外发现的含有孢子或菌丝体的土壤,整个季节都在盆中生长,然后在季节结束时收获根和菌丝体。 这些被殖民的根部碎片是你在下一年给你的果树施用的接种剂。

Since AM fungi are generalist, and associated with the vast majority of plants in the world, you don’t need any expensive tree nursery type of operation to cultivate them. You simply take your soil containing wild spawn or spores of AM fungi, mix it with compost and vermiculate, and add non-woody perennial host plants such as bahiagrass or annual rye.

由于 AM 真菌是通才,与世界上绝大多数植物有关,你不需要任何昂贵的苗圃类型的操作来培育它们。 你只需简单地把含有 AM 真菌的野生菌种或孢子的土壤,与堆肥和蠕虫混合,并添加非木质多年生宿主植物,如 bahiagrass 或一年生黑麦。

These grasses are ideal, because they develop fibrous roots that fungi can colonize and they aren’t winter-hardy. Therefore, if you prepare your pots in springtime, and allow enough time for fungi to colonize the roots, by wintertime you’ll have your colonized root fragment ready to harvest plus the perennial grasses will die off once the winter chill strikes them.

这些草是理想的,因为它们长出了纤维根,真菌可以在其中生长,而且它们不耐寒。 因此,如果你在春天准备好盆栽,并且给真菌足够的时间在根部繁殖,到了冬天,你就可以收获已经殖民化的根部,而且一旦冬季寒冷袭击多年生草本植物,它们就会死去。

You can find the whole procedure for On-Farm Production of Inoculum of Mycorrhizal Fungi from Rodale Institute here.

你可以在这里找到罗代尔研究所菌根真菌接种剂农场生产的全过程。

Now, let’s see how to bring the rest of the soil food web team on board…

现在,让我们看看如何把剩下的土壤食物网团队带上船..。

Step 5. Make a compost tea from a healthy forest soil and spread it all over to bring other native microorganisms that will help fungi and plants grow. 第五步。 从健康的森林土壤中制作一种混合茶,然后将其涂抹到所有地方,带来其他本地微生物,这些微生物将有助于真菌和植物的生长

imgBrewing a fungal dominated compost tea… 酿造一种真菌为主的堆肥茶..

Your healthy food forest soil requires the presence of the whole soil food web. Fungi are an integral part of it, and they are keystone species, but the picture is not complete without bacteria, protozoa, nematode, microarthropods… The role and function of all those organisms is important when it comes to nutrient cycling and growing plants.

你的健康食物森林土壤需要整个土壤食物网的存在。 真菌是其中不可分割的一部分,它们是关键种,但是如果没有细菌、原生动物、线虫、微节肢动物... ... 所有这些生物体在营养循环和植物生长方面的作用和功能是非常重要的。

In addition, certain EM mushrooms simply won’t grow without their microflora. People usually try to grow truffles, chanterelles, maitakes, etc., but fail because the newly introduced mushrooms are missing their bacterial associates. Consequently, if you want to grow truffles with those hazels, inoculated roots are only half of the story…

另外,某些 EM 菌没有微生物就不能生长。 人们通常尝试种植块菌、鸡油菌、鸡油菌等等,但是失败了,因为新引进的蘑菇缺少了它们的细菌同伴。 因此,如果你想用这些榛子种松露,接种根只是故事的一半..。

Okay, up until now in your food forest you should have decomposing fungi on the surface and slowly expanding mycorrhizal network underground, now let’s see how to bring other organisms into the mix. Fungi are at their most animated when bacteria join the food forest party but, overall, we can say that, the more diverse the food web, the more diverse the fungal diet, and thus the healthier the soil.

好的,到目前为止,在你的食物森林里,你应该有表面上的分解真菌,然后慢慢地在地下扩展菌根网络,现在让我们看看如何把其他有机体带入混合物中。 当细菌加入食物森林派对时,真菌是最活跃的,但是,总的来说,我们可以说,食物网越多样化,真菌的饮食就越多样化,因此土壤就越健康。

You don’t have to go far or think too much about where you’re going to find this massive diversity of microorganisms that your plants and fungi need. Instead, you’re simply going to use the healthy forest soil you found in Step 2 and make yourself a compost tea out of it. Think of a compost tea as liquid fertilizer and an inoculant.

你不需要走得太远,也不需要想太多关于在哪里可以找到你的植物和真菌所需要的大量微生物的问题。 相反,你只需要使用第二步中找到的健康的森林土壤,然后用它给自己做一杯混合茶。 想象一个混合肥料茶叶作为液体肥料和接种剂。

By brewing and spreading compost tea across your site and around your planted trees, you’ll be inoculating the ground with the indigenous microbes and help fungi and plants grow. This is a simple, yet brilliant means to further distribute diversity and help nurture your food forest.

通过在你的地盘和种植的树木周围酿造和施放混合肥料茶叶,你将在土地上接种土著微生物,帮助真菌和植物生长。 这是一个简单而又绝妙的方法,可以进一步分配多样性,帮助培育你的食物森林。

Making compost tea requires a compost brewer. In short, if you want to make an aerated compost tea, you’ll need some sort of a bucket, an air pump, a mesh bag for containing the forest soil, and a food source for your microbes (humic acid, seaweed, fish hydrolysate, molasses…). You fill the bucket with water, place the mesh bag inside, turn on the pump, and add the food source. This then starts the process of aeration and multiplication of the micro-organisms.

制作堆肥茶需要一个堆肥制造商。 简而言之,如果你想做一个充气的堆肥茶,你需要一个桶,一个气泵,一个用来装森林土壤的网袋,以及一个微生物的食物来源(腐殖酸,海藻,水解鱼,糖蜜...)。 你把桶装满水,把网袋放进去,打开水泵,然后加入食物源。 然后开始通气和微生物的增殖过程。

Once you’re done, wait for 24h and you’ll have compost tea that’s ready to be applied. To learn more about how to make compost tea, I recommend that you watch this video.

一旦你完成了,等待24小时,你将有堆肥茶,准备应用。 要了解更多关于如何制作堆肥茶,我建议你观看这个视频。

Also, don’t forget that you can grow your own fungal compost from this forest soil. This way you be ensured of a perfect inoculum of indigenous organisms and an almost endless supply of composted soil for the compost tea.

另外,不要忘记你可以从森林土壤中种植你自己的真菌堆肥。 这种方式,你可以确保一个完美的接种土著有机体和一个几乎无穷无尽的堆肥茶土壤供应。

By putting the forest soil into a compost pile and giving the microbes the right type of the foods (10% nitrogen material, 30% green material, 60% brown material) you’ll be multiplying the resident forest microflora and fauna in both volume and number. Plus, you don’t have to go to the forest every time you need to brew a compost tea…

通过将森林土壤放入一堆堆肥中,并给予微生物正确的食物类型(10% 的氮物质,30% 的绿色物质,60% 的棕色物质) ,你将在数量和数量上成倍增加森林中的微生物和动物。 另外,你不必每次泡混合肥料茶时都去森林。

All right, now for the grand finale and making sure the fungi are here to stay for a long time…

好了,现在是压轴戏,确保菌类在这里停留很长时间..。

Download the free ‘forest fungi protocol’ cheatsheet. Just print it, fold it a*****nd put in your pocket as you work on bringing the fungi back to your land to improve soil quality.* 下载免费的‘森林真菌协议'作弊表。 只要打印出来,折叠起来,放进口袋里,就可以把真菌带回土地,改善土壤质量

Step 6. Keep adding woody debris in the form of mulch, logs and hugelbeds to feed the fungi and ensure good growing conditions. 第六步。 继续以覆盖物、原木和土壤的形式添加木质残渣来喂养菌类,确保良好的生长条件

imgBuilding some hugelbeds…My recommendation is just keeping on bringing woody materal and pile it up within the tree row. 建造一些胡格尔河床... ... 我的建议是继续带来木本植物,并把它们堆积在树丛中

Now you’ve come full circle, In Step 1 you started with creating a fungal-friendly environment with cover crops, and we’ll now close the loop in this step. The primary goal with early covercropping was to get more organic matter in place (food and nutrients for fungi) and to prep the soil for trees and their mycorrhizal partners.

现在你已经回到了原点,在第一步中,你开始创建一个有覆盖作物的适合真菌生长的环境,现在我们将在这一步中结束循环。 早期覆盖种植的主要目的是获得更多的有机物(食物和真菌的养分) ,并为树木和它们的菌根伙伴准备土壤。

The secondary goal was to create a microclimate of shade and increased moisture for the decomposing fungi that live on the surface and other fruiting mycorrhizal mushrooms. Perennial grasses, with their long vertical shoots, provide shade right above the ground, and the stems act as conduits for collecting condensation, sending water droplets to the soil level where mushrooms like to form.

第二个目标是创造一个阴凉的小气候和增加水分的分解真菌生活在表面和其他果实菌根蘑菇。 多年生禾本科植物有着垂直的长芽,在地面上提供遮荫,茎部充当收集凝结水的管道,将水滴送到土壤层,蘑菇喜欢在那里形成。

Now that we’ve introduced the decomposing and mycorrhizal fungi and the rest of the resident forest micro-organisms, it’s time to keep feeding them and promoting the environment they need to flourish. You can keep up cutting your cover crops and leave them to decompose in situ but that’s not enough for fungi, for them to grow you should keep adding woody debris in the form of wood chips, logs and hugelbeds.

既然我们已经介绍了正在分解的真菌和菌根真菌,以及森林中的其他微生物,现在是时候继续喂养它们,并改善它们赖以生存的环境了。 你可以继续切割你的覆盖作物,让它们在原地分解,但是这对真菌生长来说是不够的,对于它们的生长来说,你应该继续添加木屑,原木和胡格尔培养基形式的木质碎片。

Our goal is to create fungal duff, that litter layer where mineralization and humification take place. In essence, you want to emulate the forest floor conditions with natural twigs, logs and leaf fall all around. This is what fungi need in terms of both food and those favourable conditions of shade and moisture.

我们的目标是制造真菌垃圾,在那里发生矿化和腐殖化作用。 从本质上讲,你要模仿森林地表的环境,用天然的小树枝、原木和落叶环绕其周围。 这就是真菌需要的食物和那些有利的条件,阴凉和水分。

Now, whether you use whole or fragmented wood is going to affect the rate at which nutrients return to the soil. For example, wood chips are quickly consumed by fungal mycelium, whereas logs decompose much more slowly. But you want both, and in-between, variably sized fragments will let mycelium quickly grab and invade the wood and act as mulch, and wood fragments with greater surface areas are more likely to have contact with spores or mycelium and also can be buried underground.

现在,无论你使用整块木头还是碎木头,都会影响养分返回土壤的速度。 例如,木屑很快被真菌菌丝体消耗掉,而原木分解则要慢得多。 但是你两者都需要,而且在两者之间,大小不同的碎片会让菌丝体迅速抓住并侵入木材,作为覆盖物,表面积较大的木材碎片更有可能接触孢子或菌丝体,也可能被埋在地下。

First the mulch layer: the ideal mulch, according to Michael Phillips, is the ramial chipped wood, i.e. twigs of wood that are less than 7cm in diameter coming from deciduous trees and woody shrubs. This is going to be the main course for feeding mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi and a great means of creating the increased shade and moisture conditions they need.

首先是覆盖层: 迈克尔 · 菲利普斯认为,理想的覆盖层是枝条状劈开的木材,即直径小于7厘米的树枝来自落叶乔木和木本灌木。 这将是饲养菌根真菌和腐生真菌的主要途径,也是创造它们所需的遮荫和湿度条件的重要手段。

You can put down anywhere from 2-8in (5-20cm) deep of these woodchips and create “shade” for fungi and of course suppress unwanted competing plant species. Suffice to say, young trees will love you for helping them to reduce the competition from weeds. Nonetheless, be careful not to go overboard and pile mulch too deeply, as this suffocates aerobic fungi, the fungi we’re trying to grow.

你可以在任何地方放置2-8英寸(5-20厘米)深的这些木片,并为真菌创造“阴影” ,当然抑制不必要的竞争植物物种。 我只想说,小树会喜欢你,因为你帮助它们减少了杂草的竞争。 尽管如此,还是要小心不要太过火,不要把覆盖物堆得太深,因为这样会窒息需氧真菌,而这些真菌正是我们试图培养的。

Now with your log layer on the surface, it’s hard to go overboard, just keep bringing logs and bigger branches from the nearby forest, or use the leftovers from maintaining your food forest and getting the firewood. Just be careful not to obstruct your access within the food forest.

现在你的原木层在表面,它是很难走到外面,只是保持从附近的森林带来原木和更大的树枝,或使用剩余的维护您的食物森林和获得木柴。 只是要小心不要阻碍你进入食物森林。

Leave them sticking out everywhere, put them in the tree row or use them to make contour beds that catch the organic matter runoff. In so doing, you’re creating different microclimates and random places for the wildlife to stick around and help you out with the pest control. If that wasn’t enough, you might get some fruiting mushrooms…

让它们到处伸出来,把它们放在树排上,或者用它们做成等高线床,用来捕捉有机物的径流。 这样做,你创造了不同的小气候和随机的地方野生动物逗留和帮助你与害虫控制。 如果这还不够的话,你可能会得到一些结果的蘑菇..。

Also, burying logs or woody debris and thus creating hugelbeds is a great way to promote fungi growth and soil creation. This creates substantial pockets of organic matter where fungi will prosper for years.

此外,掩埋原木或木质残骸,从而创造胡格尔河床是一个伟大的方式来促进真菌生长和土壤创造。 这就产生了大量的有机物,在那里真菌将繁荣多年。

The wood in the soil is like a sponge and acts as water storage. This is incredibly important in drier periods but, overall, fungi and other microbes need moisture for the decomposition and their metabolism. So conditions for all sorts of fungi are ideal, and, over the ensuing years, fungi will digest the wood and provide a constant source of water, nutrients, and warmth to plant roots.

土壤中的木头就像海绵,起着贮水的作用。 这在干燥时期非常重要,但总的来说,真菌和其他微生物需要水分来分解和新陈代谢。 所以各种真菌的生存条件都很理想,在接下来的几年里,真菌会消化木材,为植物根系提供恒定的水分、养分和温暖。

With that, you’ve provided the fungi with their food and favourable conditions so that they can flourish and ultimately help you have that low maintenance abundant food forest you always dreamt of.

有了这些,你就为菌类提供了食物和有利的条件,这样它们就可以繁衍生息,并最终帮助你拥有你梦寐以求的、维护费用低、食物丰富的森林。

In summary 总而言之

Using fungi as a tool for ecological restoration is a relatively new concept borrowed from the age-old methods of nature. Today, we know that the strength and health of any ecosystem is a direct measure of its diverse fungal populations and their interplay with plants, insects, bacteria, and other organisms.

利用真菌作为生态恢复的工具是一个相对较新的概念,借鉴了古老的自然方法。 今天,我们知道,任何生态系统的强度和健康是对其不同真菌种群及其与植物、昆虫、细菌和其他生物相互作用的直接衡量。

With this guide, I wanted to create a protocol that mimics or replicates what forested land would do after some sort of a catastrophe, i.e. how it would heal itself, but, of course, all of this is applied to a food forest out in the open sun. So in summary:

有了这个指南,我想创建一个协议,模仿或复制森林土地在某种灾难之后会做什么,即如何自我修复,但是,当然,所有这些都适用于在开放的阳光下的食物森林。 总而言之:

1. We started the whole process by having the right conditions in mind. Fungi need shade, moisture, and food, and we’ve started to create these beneficial conditions for both the fungi and the trees with some earthworks and covercropping.

\1. 我们开始的整个过程中,有正确的条件在心中。 菌类需要阴凉、水分和食物,我们已经开始通过一些土方工程和覆盖栽培为菌类和树木创造这些有利条件。

2. We found local strains of fungi and other microorganisms in the nearby forest that you can cultivate and use to inoculate your food forest soil. You don’t have to reinvent anything, just do what nature does and use what nature would in your local ecosystem restoration.

图2。 我们在附近的森林里发现了真菌和其他微生物的本地菌株,你可以培养它们并用它们来接种你的食用森林土壤。 你不需要重新发明任何东西,只要做大自然做的事情,利用大自然在当地生态系统恢复中所做的事情。

3. First, we introduced the saprophytic fungi to your land; these are easiest to recognize and transplant (think fallen logs in the forest). The introduction of these pioneering fungi will begin the soil creation and trigger a cascade of activity by other organisms.

图3。 首先,我们将腐生真菌引入你的土地; 这些真菌最容易识别和移植(想想森林里掉落的原木)。 这些开拓性真菌的引入将开始土壤的生成,并触发其他生物的级联活动。

4. Following this, we introduced the mycorrhizal fungi to the system, whether by using wild spawn, spores, mushrooms or cultivated root fragments. Once in the ground, these fungi will improve the soil and help your plants grow and distribute the nutrients and water where they’re needed the most.

图4。 接下来,我们将菌根真菌引入到这个系统中,无论是使用野生菌种、孢子、蘑菇还是栽培的根茎碎片。 一旦进入地下,这些真菌将改善土壤,帮助你的植物生长,并将养分和水分分配到最需要它们的地方。

5. Next, we introduced the fungi we made a compost tea brew to bring other symbiotic organisms that will help fungi and plants grow. Fungi will grow better if you bring the rest of the forest soil microbes, especially bacteria. The most effective way of doing this is brewing some compost tea and spreading it all over the place.

\5. 接下来,我们引入了真菌,我们制作了一种混合肥料茶汁,带来了其他的共生有机体,这将有助于真菌和植物的生长。 如果你把森林土壤中的其他微生物,尤其是细菌,带到森林中,真菌会生长得更好。 最有效的方法就是冲泡一些混合肥料茶,然后把它们洒得到处都是。

6. Finally, we continue to promote the fungal environment with woody debris. With everything in place and your food forest growing you need to keep adding woody debris in the form of wood chips, logs, hugelbeds if you want to keep the fungal biomass growing.

图6。 最后,我们继续用木质残骸促进真菌环境。 如果你想保持真菌生物量的增长,随着一切就位和食物森林的生长,你需要以木屑、原木和胡格尔贝德的形式不断添加木质残骸。

There you have it, that’s how you work in partnership with fungi to help your food forest grow!

这就是你如何与真菌合作来帮助你的食物森林成长的!

Let me know what you think about the protocol in the comments section below.

请在下面的评论部分告诉我你对协议的看法。

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