@zhongdao 2019-07-08T11:22:02.000000Z 字数 22388 阅读 2798

生态森林快速恢复方法整理与汇总

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印度Shubhendu Sharma的快速构建小型森林的工程化方法

TED1: 种小型森林基本方法与成本

1.利用当地生物质，作为改变土壤的肥料。例如：把椰子壳在一个机器里碾碎，与稻草混合起来，稻壳粉与有机肥混合，最后倒到我们要造林的土壤上。
2. 种好之后，我们把草和稻草铺盖在土壤上。这样做的话，用于灌溉的水就不会蒸发掉。
3. 能造出一个森林，只花比买一个iPhone还少的钱。

TED2: 在你后院种出一片森林的办法

--2016
TED: How to grow a forest in your backyard
https://www.ted.com/talks/shubhendu_sharma_how_to_grow_a_forest_in_your_backyard/transcript

NEWS3: 种树的人：Shubhendu Sharma

绿化公司技术的效果展示与量化

https://www.afforestt.com/results

The Miyawaki Technique is a unique methodology proven to work worldwide, irrespective of soil and climatic conditions. More than 3,000 forests have been successfully created worldwide using this methodology.
Miyawaki 技术是一种独特的方法，经证明在世界各地都有效，无论土壤和气候条件如何。 利用这种方法，在全世界成功地创造了3000多个森林。

Upto 30 times more dense compared to conventional plantations.

At least 50-100 different native species planted in the same area.

30 times better noise and dust reduction.

Upto 30 times better Carbon-dioxide absorption as compared to a monoculture plantation.

Guaranteed growth of atleast 1 meter every year.

A completely maintenance-free, wild and native forest after the first three years.

A completely chemical and chemical fertiliser free forest that sustains itself and supports local bio-diversity.

创建森林的最低要求

A small piece of land (minimum 100 square meters) should be readily available for forest creation. 一小块土地(至少100平方米)应该很容易用于森林创造。

Minimum requirements – running water, fencing, exposure to sunlight, soil availability and maintenance staff for watering and de-weeding. 最低要求: 自来水、围栏、阳光照射、土壤可用性、浇水和除草维护人员

创建阶段划分

forest creation happens in the following phases:

第一阶段ー场地准备及物料采购

Phase I- Site preparation and material procurement

In this phase, we will guide you remotely or on-site to help you prepare for forest creation and will work with you to achieve the following:

Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV) database development 潜在自然植被(PNV)数据库开发
Species selection and quantification 物种选择与量化
Soil study and analysis 土壤研究和分析
Soil nourishment material selection and quantification 土壤营养物质的选择与量化
Quality checking of all consumables/non-consumables 所有消耗品 / 非消耗品的质量检查
Material procurement 物料采购
Creating the execution design 创建执行设计
Selecting most appropriate tools and machinery 选择最合适的工具和机械

第二阶段-创造小森林

Phase II – Tiny Forest creation

In this phase the tiny forest gets created and covers the following:

Train the workers and machine operator 培训工人和机器操作员
Earthwork and soil preparation 土方和土壤整理
Saplings' layering, arrangement and plantation 幼树的分层、整理和种植
Sapling support 树苗支持
Mulching 覆盖
Understanding forest maintenance and monitoring 了解森林维护和监测

主要成果

Key outcomes

The clients become forest creators by being involved in the entire process.

Boomforest描述的生态森林恢复方法

原文链接

http://boomforest.org/en/pages/miyawaki_method

Akira Miyawaki and his method/宫胁明和他的方法

Miyawaki observed the trees which traditionally grew around temples, shrines, and cemeteries in Japan were native species, relics of the primary forest and at the same time he calculated that only 0.06% of contemporary Japanese forests were indigenous forests. Contemporary forests, created according to forestry principles, are not in his view the most resilient nor the best suited vegetation for the geobioclimatic conditions in Japan, neither are they the most suited to address climate change. >> More info on Pr. Akira Miyawaki's life on Wikipedia

Referring to potential natural vegetation (PNV) (a concept he studied in Germany), he developed, tested and refined a method of ecological engineering today known as the "Miyawaki method" to restore native forests from seeds of native trees on very degraded soils which were deforested and without humus. Using ecological theories and the results of his experiments, he quickly and successfully restored, sometimes over large areas, protective forests (disaster-prevention, environment-conservation and water-source-protection forests) So take a look on how you could create a Miyawaki forest in your garden, here we go!

第一步 场地调查与自然潜在植被的发现

Site survey and the discovery of the Natural Potential Vegetation.

Identification of the native species 20km around the selected zone for the afforestation. It's recommended to identify between 50 and 100 different species, they can be bought at a nursery or found nearby and transplanted.

第二步 地形准备

Terrain preparation.

Soil cleaning, addition of organic nutrients, preparation of elements permitting water retention (to be added later once the plantation finished) and the creation of a hill (30 degrees maximum slope).

第三步 志愿者种

Plantation by the volunteers.

Plant between 3 to 5 little trees per squared meter.

Apply the straw protection, that allow the creation of wood humidity and water retention.

第四步 维护保养

Maintenance.

Watering and weed control during 3 years. Reuse the dead plants (mortality tipically around 5%) and weeds as straw putting it on the top of the hill.

3年间的浇水和杂草控制。 重复使用死去的植物(死亡率在5% 左右)和杂草作为稻草放在山顶上。

After 3 years the forest site becomes autonomous. It doesn't need any more maintenance: « No management is best management » according to Prof. Miyawaki.

3年后，森林基地成为自治区。 它不需要更多的维护: 宫胁教授说:"没有管理就是最好的管理。"。

Akira Miyawaki的生态森林恢复方法

维基百科中英对照原文

Akira Miyawaki维基百科中英对照 https://www.zybuluo.com/zhongdao/note/1504589

种植成功的方法和条件

The Miyawaki method of reconstitution of "indigenous forests by indigenous trees" produces a rich, dense and efficient protective pioneer forest in 20 to 30 years, where natural succession would need 200 years in temperate Japan and 300 to 500 years in the tropics. Success requires compliance with the following phases:

Miyawaki 采用"本土树木重建本土森林"的方法，在20至30年内生产出丰富、密集和高效的保护性先锋森林，在日本温带地区，自然演替需要200年，在热带地区需要300至500年。 成功需要遵守以下阶段:

第一步 调研

1. Rigorous initial site survey and research of potential natural vegetation.
严格的潜在自然植被初步调查与研究

第二步 鉴定收集当地种子

1. Identification and collecting of a large number of various native seeds, locally or nearby and in a comparable geoclimatic context. 鉴定和收集大量当地或附近以及类似地球气候背景下的各种本地种子

第三步 苗圃萌发

1. Germination in a nursery (which requires a technique for some species, for example, those that germinate only after passing through the digestive tract of a certain animal, or that need a particular symbiotic fungus, or a cold induced dorming phase, etc.).
苗圃中的萌发(对某些物种来说需要一种技术，例如，那些只有通过某种动物的消化道才能萌发的，或者那些需要特殊技术的共生真菌, 或冷诱导睡眠期 等)

第四步 可降解基质准备

1. Preparation of the substrate if it is very degraded (addition of organic matter/mulch (for example with 3–4 kg of rice straw per square metre, to replace the protection afforded by surface humus and leaf litter) and (in areas with heavy or torrential rainfall) planting mounds for tap-root species that require a well-drained soil surface. Hill slopes can be planted with more ubiquitous surface roots species (cedar, Japanese cypress, pine, etc.)
基质的制备，如果它是容易降解(加入有机物 /覆盖物 (例如每平方米3-4公斤稻草，以取代地表腐殖质和落叶层） 及 (在有大雨或暴雨的地区) 在山丘种植主根类 的需要排水良好的土壤表面的物种。 山坡上可以种植更多的表面根系物种(雪松、日本扁柏、松树等等)。

第五步 密集多样性种植

1. Plantation respecting biodiversity inspired by the model of the natural forest. Miyawaki implements and recommends unusually dense plantation of very young seedlings (but with an already mature root system : with symbiotic bacteria and fungi present), for example 30 cm oaks from acorns, raised in a nursery over two years. Density aims at stirring competition between species and the onset of phytosociological relations close to what would happen in nature (30 to 50 plants per square metre in the temperate zone, up to 500 or even 1000 seedlings per square metre in Borneo);
关于种植生物多样性 的灵感来自于天然森林的模型。 宫胁实施和建议非常密集的种植非常年轻的幼苗(但有一个已经成熟的根系: 共生细菌和真菌）, 例如30厘米长的橡子橡树，在苗圃培育超过两年。 密度的目的在于引发物种之间的 竞争植物群落关系 接近自然界的情况(温带地区每平方米30至50株，婆罗洲地区每平方米500甚至1000株) ;

第六步 随机分布

1. Plantations randomly distributed in space in the way plants are distributed in a clearing or at the edge of the natural forest, not in rows or staggered (meeting on this point with the Prosilva methods in Europe).
种植随机分布在空间中，植物分布在空地或天然林的边缘，而不是成行或交错分布(在这一点上与欧洲的Prosilva法符合)

结果形成正常原始森林

The results show that this method, if properly applied, quickly produces a multi-layered forest and according to him, a soil with a microbial and acaricomposition quickly approaching that of a normal primary forest. He has published dozens of books, treatises, and articles on his researches and results.

结果与应用

According to the classical theory of succession initiated by Clements in the U.S., it should need 150 to 200 years for a young native forest with a multi-layered community to restore itself on bare soil in Japan, and it takes 300–500 years or more in the tropics of Southeast Asia.

Miyawaki seeks to accelerate the process of ecological healing by imitating as much as possible the normal composition of the primary forest in each context. He expects to get a restored temperate forest, whose facies and structure (distinct genetics, humus, and sections of old or dead wood) strongly resemble the native forest, in 20 to 30 years.

Miyawaki 试图通过尽可能多地模仿每种情况下原始森林的正常组成来加速生态愈合的进程。 他希望在20到30年内，恢复温带森林，其相和结构(明显的遗传基因，腐殖质，以及部分古老或枯死的木材)与原始森林非常相似。

Miyawaki has extensively tested the method in:

Miyawaki 在以下方面广泛测试了这种方法:

In each case, he was able to quickly restore a dense canopy reminiscent of the native forest.

In 1998, Miyawaki piloted a project of reconstruction of a forest dominated by the Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) along the Great Wall of China, gathering 4000 people to plant 400,000 trees, with the support of the Aeon Environment Foundation and the city of Beijing. The first trees planted by groups of Chinese and Japanese, on areas where the forest had long since gone, had grown over 3 m high in 2004 and - except for one part - continued to thrive in 2007.

1998年，Miyawaki 在永旺环境基金会和北京市的支持下，试行了一个中国长城沿线以蒙古栎为主的森林重建项目，聚集了4000人，种植了40万棵树。 2004年，中国人和日本人在森林早已消失的地区种植的第一批树木已超过3米高，除了一部分树木之外，其余树木在2007年继续茁壮成长。

Miyawaki also contributes to the massive reforestation in China by Government and Chinese citizens, no longer seeking to plant commercial species for commercial or ornamental purpose only, but to restore the natural potential vegetation, including in Pudon (west coast district in the special economic zone of Shanghai), Tsingtao (Qingdao), Ningbo, and Ma'anshan.

Miyawaki received the 2006 Blue Planet Award for his involvement in the protection of nature.[1]

His method had already been presented as exemplary in a preparatory report[12] for the 1992 Earth Summit, and in 1994 in the Biodiversity congress of the UNESCO in Paris. The method was also presented in 1991 at the Symposium of the University of Bonn, "restoration of tropical forest ecosystems " and at the congresses of the International Association for Ecology, the International Society for Vegetation Science, and the International Botanical Congress, including new aspects including the links between growth, natural habitat and estimated carbon fixation.

Curiously, despite more than 1,000 successful and sometimes spectacular experiences, the Western forestry or landscape world has rarely attempted to apply or even test the "Miyawaki method".

相关批评

One of the few criticisms of the Miyawaki method (such as during the 1994 conference on Biodiversity at UNESCO in Paris) is that it produces a slightly monotonous visual appearance due to the first generation of trees all being the same age. This criticism is generally made on the basis of photographs taken after 10 or 20 years. But Miyawaki was among the first to emphasize the importance of not planting trees in a line or at equal distances (He would often have trees planted by the public or by young children to promote randomness). He wants to imitate the complexity and the semi- random nature of the plant community of native habitat. He promotes competition between plants, natural selection and plant associations. He believes that the faster-growing trees, the broken ones and those attacked by herbivores quickly produce new shoots resulting in low and intermediate strata.
Miyawaki方法的少数批评之一（例如在1994年巴黎教科文组织生物多样性会议期间）由于第一代树木都是同一年龄而产生略微单调的视觉外观。这种批评通常是根据10年或20年后拍摄的照片制作的。但是Miyawaki是第一个强调不在一条线或相同距离种植树木的重要性（他经常会让公众或幼儿种植树木以促进随机性）。他想模仿原生栖息地植物群落的复杂性和半随机性。他促进植物之间的竞争，自然选择和植物聚集。他认为生长得更快的树木，零碎的树木和那些被食草动物袭击的树木很快会产生新的枝条，导致低层和中层地层

Another criticism is the high cost of the first phase (nursery, soil preparation, dense planting), but the success rates are exceptionally good where conventional methods fail. The forests also require much less maintenance and attention. Some have lost most of their leaves in cyclones, but they resisted and helped protect the buildings where they were planted.

中国的研究与应用

用乡土树种重建当地森林———宫胁森林重建法介绍

宫胁造林法与传统造林的比较

(1)单一树种和单层结构的森林抗干扰能力低。容易受病虫危害，容易发 生火灾，容易受酸雨危害等。如我国北方的针叶林70一∞ 年代大面积的虫害，原因之一就是单一种类。再如欧洲的单 种类、单层次的针叶林，在抗虫害、火灾和酸雨方面非常差， 每年因防护花费大量经费。
(2)反复砍伐容易造成水土流失。
(3)在保持水土、固定C02、吸附尘埃和净化空气污染方面，与天然林相比差距很大。
(4)造林常用外来树种( Alien species)对当地生态系统和生物多样性具有潜在的危险。

山东的主要造林用乡土植物

(1)乔木

(2)灌木

(3)藤本植物 南蛇藤、葛、菝葜、木防已、木通、猕猴桃、金银花、山葡 萄、扶芳藤等。
(4)草本植物 草本植物以禾本科、菊科、豆科、蔷蔽科、莎草科等的种 类为主。在土壤湿润肥沃的地段适宜的有野古草、羊胡子苔 草、大油芒、荻、山丹、薄荷、香薷、大叶铁线莲、兰刺头、蕨、小 唐松草、威灵仙、地榆、桔梗、杏叶沙参、玉竹等。土壤瘠薄干 旱的地段可选用白羊草、黄背草、白茅、蓬子菜、霞草、瞿麦、

*表示鸟嗜树种， &表示蜜源树种

参考资料

TED演讲者Shubhendu Sharma的快速生态森林恢复相关资料

Shubhendu Sharma在ted演讲中提到的自己的绿化公司
https://www.afforestt.com/

https://www.zybuluo.com/zhongdao/note/1502161

12,000 Trees, 1 Acre: This NGO Is Creating a Dense Forest in the Middle of Mumbai

"我们用这些材料建造了一个种植园，每平方米种植2至5棵树苗。 这些树苗可以在短短两年内长到20英尺高。"。

https://www.thebetterindia.com/173614/mumbai-tree-planting-miyawaki-forest-city-green-cover/

Boomforest描述的生态森林恢复方法

The Miyawaki's forest restoration method!
http://boomforest.org/en/pages/miyawaki_method

Miyawaki的森林恢复方法(Boomforest)
https://www.zybuluo.com/zhongdao/note/1504566

Akira Miyawaki的生态森林恢复方法

Akira Miyawaki维基百科中英对照
https://www.zybuluo.com/zhongdao/note/1504589

中国的学术文章对Akira Miyawaki方法的描述

https://bj.leju.com/exhibit/yuanyang/hb3.htm

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