@zhongdao 2019-12-07T09:55:12.000000Z 字数 14329 阅读 1987



Fukuoka’s Food Forest


Eric Toensmeier 埃里克 · 托恩斯梅尔

7 minutes read 读7分钟

Mandarin orange, a main crop of Fukuoka’s food forest.
At one time he was shipping an impressive 90 tons of citrus fruit annually


Many of us in the permaculture and organic movements have read Japanese farmer Masanobu Fukuoka’s One Straw Revolution, which lays out his ingenious (though hard to replicate) no-till organic rice production system. I was surprised and pleased when, in my job as librarian for the New England Small Farm Institute in the late 1990s, I stumbled on his Natural Way of Farming, a translation of his 1976 book Shizen Noho. At that time he had already been running his orchard as an organic polyculture food forest for over three decades — since the 1940s! Natural Way of Farming offers much detail about Fukuoka’s methods of grain, vegetable, and fruit production. It was a major inspiration to me as I worked on writing Edible Forest Gardens (Vol. 1 & Vol. 2).

我们许多从事永续栽培和有机运动的人都读过日本农民福冈正信的《一根稻草革命》 ,这本书展示了他的天才(虽然难以复制)免耕有机水稻生产体系。 上世纪90年代末,我在新英格兰小农场研究所担任图书管理员时,偶然发现了他的《自然耕作法》 ,这是他1976年出版的书《静恩诺霍》的译本。 当时,他已经经营他的果园作为一个有机多元文化食品林超过三十年,自20世纪40年代以来! 《自然农业之路》详细介绍了福冈的谷物、蔬菜和水果生产方法。 这是我写作《可食用的森林花园》时的主要灵感来源。 1 & Vol. 2).

Fukuoka’s food forest (he refers to it as his orchard) is a fantastic example of a warm temperate/subtropical food forest featuring multiple layers, abundant nitrogen-fixers, a diversity of fruits, nuts, and perennial vegetables, with sophisticated use of self-sown and broadcast annual crops. There is much for us to learn from his lifetime of experimentation in his humid, warm-temperate to subtropical climate. This is a good-sized operation, covering ten or more acres. In the 1980s Fukuoka was shipping 200,000 pounds (about 90 metric tons) of citrus annually from 800 citrus trees. (1)

福冈的食用林(他称之为他的果园)是暖温带 / 亚热带食用林的一个绝妙例子,它具有多层次、丰富的固氮剂、多种多样的水果、坚果和多年生蔬菜,以及复杂的自我种植和播种一年生作物的方法。 我们可以从他一生在湿润、暖温带和亚热带气候下的实验中学到很多东西。 这是一个大规模的行动,占地十英亩或更多。 上世纪80年代,福冈每年从800棵柑橘树上运送20万磅(约合90公吨)的柑橘。 (1)

The book is full of fantastic color photos of his no-till grain, vegetable, and food forest systems. I don’t have rights to them, so get a copy of the book and check them out! Used copies of several editions are available online.

这本书充满了他的粮食,蔬菜和食物森林系统的奇妙的彩色照片。 我对它们没有权利,所以拿一本书来看看吧! 若干版本的旧副本可在网上查阅。


Food forest design


Fukuoka recommends diverse polycultures, starting with mixing deciduous and evergreen fruits.


Never forget to plant green manure trees. (2)


Fukuoka’s nitrogen fixing trees include acacias, alders, autumn olive, wax myrtle (Myrica) and podocarpus. He advocated maintaining a productive and diverse understory.

福冈的固氮树种包括金合欢、桤木、秋橄榄、 Myrica 的腊桃金娘和罗汉松。 他主张保持一个丰富多彩的林下植被。

Using the open space in an orchard to raise an undergrowth of special-purpose crops and vegetables is the very picture of nature. (3)

利用果园的开放空间培育特殊用途作物和蔬菜的灌木丛,是大自然的真实写照。 (3)

A natural orchard in which full, three-dimensional use of space is made in this way is entirely different from conventional orchards that employ high-production techniques. For the individual wishing to live in communion with nature, this is truly a paradise on earth. (4) 

自然果园是以这种方式充分、立体地利用空间,这与采用高产技术的传统果园完全不同。 对于希望与大自然交融生活的个人来说,这是一个真正的人间天堂。 (4)

Food forest establishment


When starting an orchard, the main goals initially should be prevention of weed emergence and maturation of the soil. (p.144)(5)

种植果园的首要目标应是防止杂草的出现和土壤的成熟。 (p. 144)(5)

Fukuoka also advocates for terracing and the use of contour berm-and-basin systems (known as contour swales to many of us in permaculture).


Fukuoka set out his orchard in forest land he had recently cleared. Trunks and branches from land clearing were laid out in windrows on contour — like the hugelculture technique popular in permaculture today.

福冈把他的果园建在他最近清理过的林地上。 空地上的树干和枝条在等高线上排列成条状,就像今天流行于草业中的胡格尔文化技术。

To establish a natural orchard, one should dig large holes here and there among the stumps of felled trees and plant unpruned saplings and fruit seed over the site, leaving these unattended just as one would leave alone a reforested stand of trees. (6)

为了建立一个自然的果园,人们应该在被砍伐的树木的树桩之间到处挖掘大洞,在这个地方种植未修剪的树苗和果实种子,把这些留在无人照管的地方,就像人们留下一片被重新修剪过的树木一样。 (6)

Resprouting stumps and weeds were cut or coppiced with a sickle.


He offers some sophisticated ecosystem mimicry advice, listing weed crops by family and replacement crops in the same family. For instance, wild morning glories might indicate planting of sweet potato. Fukuoka advocates a minimal pruning strategy (see below). At establishment, he aims to set up the tree for a lifetime of minimal pruning by establishing a form like its wild character. After 5-6 years, Fukuoka came in and built terraces uphill from each tree row. Then he transitioned the understory to ladino (white) clover (Trifolium repens).

他提供了一些复杂的模拟生态系统的建议,按家庭列出杂草作物和同一家庭的替代作物。 例如,野生牵牛花可能意味着种植红薯。 福冈提倡一种最小化的削减战略(见下文)。 在建立,他的目标是建立树为一生的最小修剪通过建立一个形式喜欢它的野生性质。 5-6年后,福冈开始在山上建造梯田,每排树木都是梯田。 然后他把林下植物转换成了白色三叶草白三叶草。

Food forest understory


What helps to rehabilitate depleted soil? I planted the seeds of thirty legumes, crucifers, and grasses throughout my orchard and from observations of these came to the general conclusion that I should grow a weed cover using ladino clover as the primary crop and such herbs as alfalfa, lupine, and bur clover as the secondary crops. To condition the deeper strata in the hard, depleted soil, I companion-planted fertilizer trees such as black wattle, myrtle, and podocarpus. (p.188) (7)

什么有助于恢复枯竭的土壤? 我在我的果园里种植了三十种豆类、十字花科植物和禾本科植物的种子,通过对这些种子的观察,我得出了一个普遍的结论: 我应该种植一种杂草,用三叶草作为主要作物,用苜蓿、羽扇豆和苜蓿作为次要作物。 为了在贫瘠的坚硬土壤中营造更深的地层,我还同时种植了肥料树,如黑荆树、桃金娘和罗汉松。 (p. 188)(7)

Fukuoka found that ladino clover would fully suppress weeds within 2-3 years, and would not need to be reseeded for 6-8 years. Drawbacks included less shade tolerance than he wanted, and the requirement for regular mowing. In winter he sowed brassica vegetables, and in summer legume vegetables and millets. Perennial vegetables were introduced and annual crops seed broadcast, with some annuals allowed to reseed themselves, producing strong-flavored feral offspring.

福冈发现,拉迪诺三叶草可以在2-3年内完全抑制杂草生长,并且在6-8年内不需要再次种植。 缺点包括比他想要的更不耐阴,以及定期割草的要求。 冬天他播种芸苔类蔬菜,夏天播种豆科蔬菜和小米。 多年生蔬菜被引进,一年生作物种子被播种,一些一年生植物被允许重新播种,产生强烈味道的野生后代。

White or ladino clover, Fukuoka’s preferred nitrogen-fixing groundcover
in the food forest understory.


Table: Fukuoka’s companion crops

表: 福冈的伴生作物

Adapted from table on page 144, Natural Way of Farming.


Crop Type 作物种类 Sample Crops 农作物样本 Understory 林下植物
Evergreen Fruit Trees 常绿果树 Citrus, loquat 柑橘,枇杷 Fuki (Petasites 彼得派教徒), buckwheat )、荞麦
Deciduous Fruit Trees 落叶果树 Walnut, persimmon, peach, plum, cherry, apricot, apple, pear 核桃、柿子、桃、李、樱桃、杏、苹果、梨 Devil’s tongue (probably an aroid), lilies, ginger, buckwheat 魔鬼之舌,百合,姜,荞麦
Fruit vines 葡萄藤 Grape, kiwi, akebia 葡萄,猕猴桃,木通 Millets
Nitrogen fixing trees 固氮树 Acacia, wax myrtle, alder 相思,腊桃金娘,桤木 Green manures*, vegetables 绿肥 * ,蔬菜

Table: Fukuoka’s green manure crops**

表: 福冈的绿肥作物

Annual crops (mostly) broadcast seasonally. Adapted from page 144, Natural Way of Farming.

一年生作物(主要)季节性播种。 改编自144页,自然的耕作方式。

Crop 农作物 Spring 春天 Summer 夏天 Winter 冬天
Ladino clover, alfalfa 拉迪诺三叶草,苜蓿 Yes 是的 Yes 是的 Yes 是的
Bur clover 苜蓿 Yes 是的
Mustard family vegetables 芥末家庭蔬菜 Yes 是的
Lupines, vetches 卢平斯,你这个废物 Yes 是的
Soybeans, peanuts, adzuki beans, mung beans, cowpeas 大豆,花生,红豆,绿豆,豇豆 Yes 是的



Black wattle trees (Acacia mearnsii) were his favorite nitrogen fixer as they were evergreen and grew to the size of a telephone pole in 7-8 years. At this point he cut down the wattles and buried them in trenches (more hugelculture). The wattle trees, fast-growing and evergreen, always served as a home for aphids and scales, and as a home to their predators like ladybugs, which provided pest control through the food forest. He ran poultry and other livestock in the orchard understory once it was established.

黑荆树(Acacia mearnsii)是他最喜欢的固氮树种,因为它们是常绿树种,在7-8年内长到电线杆大小。 这时,他砍下了篱笆,把它们埋在壕沟里(更多的是胡格尔文化)。 金合欢树,生长迅速,常绿,总是作为蚜虫和鳞片的家园,并作为它们的捕食者如瓢虫的家园,提供通过食物森林的害虫控制。 一旦果园下层建立起来,他就在里面饲养家禽和其他牲畜。

Black wattle acacia, Fukuoka’s primary nitrogen-fixing tree speces




Fukuoka has a lot to say about pruning in Natural Way of Farming. He sought minimal pruning styles to allow his fruit and nut trees to grow as close as possible to their natural shape. To this end he grew many seedlings of citrus and other species to observe their natural form. Almost half of the trees he inherited from his father died in his quest for a low-maintenance, natural pruning regime, about 400 trees!

在《自然的农业方式》一书中,福冈有很多关于修剪的话要说。 他寻求最小的修剪风格,使他的水果和坚果树生长尽可能接近自然形状。 为此,他种植了许多柑橘属和其他种类的幼苗,以观察它们的自然形态。 他从父亲那里继承的树木几乎有一半在他寻求一种低维护、自然修剪的方法时死去了,大约有400棵树!

Fukuoka’s food forest today


Masanobu Fukuoka died in 2008 at the age of 95. Today his children and grandchildren maintain the farm, including the food forest area. Citrus and ginkgo are thriving, and mango, avocado, and feijoa have been added. Shiitakes are cultivated in the understory on logs. Wild vegetables still grow beneath the orchard in some areas. (8)

福冈正信于2008年去世,享年95岁。 今天,他的子女和孙子女维持着农场,包括食物森林地区。 柑橘类和银杏类植物生长旺盛,还添加了芒果、鳄梨和肥鹅肝。 香菇栽培在原木的林下层。 有些地区的果园下面仍然生长着野菜。 (8)

Masanobu Fukuoka in 2002


Species in Fukuoka’s food forest


I’ve done my best to extrapolate from the translated common names in Natural Way of Farming. Some were nailed down with assistance from my Yama-Kei Pocket Guide to wild edibles of Japan. Surely there were many, many more which did not make it into the books, but this is a pretty good start.

我已经尽最大努力从《自然的农业方式》中翻译出来的普通名字中推断出答案。 其中一些是在我的《阎罗经》日本野生食物袖珍指南的帮助下敲定的。 当然还有很多很多没有写进书里,但这是一个很好的开始。

Large Trees 大树
Latin Name 拉丁名 Common Name 通用名称 Uses 用途 Functions 功能
Acacia mearnsii 黑荆树 Black wattle 黑荆树 Nitrogen fixer 固氮剂
Alnus japonica 日本桤木 Japanese alder 赤杨 Nitrogen fixer 固氮剂
Castanea spp. 锥栗 Chestnut 栗子 Nuts 坚果
Ginkgo biloba 银杏 Ginkgo 银杏属 Nuts, medicinal 坚果,药用
Juglans spp. 核桃 Walnut 核桃 Nuts 坚果

Ginkgo nuts, still producing well in Fukuoka’s food forest today.


Medium Trees 中型树木
Latin Name 拉丁名 Common Name 通用名称 Uses 用途 Functions 功能
Amygdalus communis 扁桃属 Apricot 杏子 Fruit 水果
Aralia elata 龙牙楤木 Japanese angelica tree 当归 Shoots and young leaves 嫩枝和嫩叶
Citrus maxima 柑桔属 Shaddock, pummelo 柚子 Fruit 水果
Citrus reticulata 橘 Mandarin orange 桔子 Fruit 水果
Citrus x. sinensis 中国柑桔 Orange 橙色 Fruit 水果
Cydonia oblonga 扁叶草属 Quince 女名女子名 Fruit 水果
Eriobotrya japonica 枇杷 loquat 枇杷 Fruit 水果
Malus domestica 家海棠 Apple 苹果 Fruit 水果
Prunus avium 欧李 cherry 樱桃 Fruit 水果
Prunus persica 桃 Peach 桃子 Fruit 水果
Prunus salicina 李 Plum 李子 Fruit 水果
*Pyrus 梨属*spp. Pear 梨 Fruit 水果
Zizyphus jujuba 枣 Jujube 枣 Fruit 水果

Loquat, a tasty evergreen fruit tree


Shrubs and Small Trees 灌木和小乔木
Latin Name 拉丁名 Common Name 通用名称 Uses 用途 Functions 功能
Eleagnus umbellata 猪苓 Oleaster, autumn olive 秋橄榄 Fruits 水果 Nitrogen fixation 固氮作用
Ficus carica 无花果 Fig 图 Fruit 水果
Fortunella japonica 圆实金柑 Kumquat 金桔 Fruit 水果
Myrica rubra 杨梅 Wax myrtle, yumberry 香桃木,美味浆果 Fruits 水果 Nitrogen fixation 固氮作用
*Podocarpus 罗汉松属*spp. Podocarpus 罗汉松属 Nitrogen fixation 固氮作用
Punica granatum 石榴 Pomegranate 石榴 Fruit 水果
*Ribes 里贝斯*spp. Currant 醋栗 Fruit 水果

Wax myrtle or yumberry, a Japanese native nitrogen-fixer with edible fruit


Vines 葡萄藤
Latin Name 拉丁名 Common Name 通用名称 Uses 用途 Functions 功能
Actinidia deliciosa 美味猕猴桃 Kiwifruit 猕猴桃 Fruit 水果
Akebia quinata 木通属 Akebia 木通属 Fruit, shoots 水果,嫩芽
Dioscorea japonica 日本薯蓣 Japanese yam 山药 Tubers, aerial tubers 块茎,空中块茎
Dioscorea polystachya 长山药 Chinese yam 山药 Tubers, aerial tubers 块茎,空中块茎
Peuraria lobata 长尾虫属 Kudzu 葛属 Tuber starch 块茎淀粉 Nitrogen fixation, weed suppression 固氮作用,杂草抑制
Sechium edule 佛手瓜 Chayote 佛手瓜属 Squash, shoots, tubers 南瓜,嫩芽,块茎
Vitis vinifera 葡萄 Grape 葡萄 Fruit 水果

Akebia, another Japanese native with edible fruits and shoots.


Perennial Herbs 多年生草本植物
Latin Name 拉丁名 Common Name 通用名称 Uses 用途 Functions 功能
Allium fistulosum 葱 Welsh onion 大葱 Scallions 大葱
Allium sativum 大蒜 Garlic 大蒜 Garlic 大蒜
Allium tuberosum 韭菜 Chinese leek 韭菜 Greens 绿色
Aralia cordata 海鞘 Udo 女名女子名 Shoots 拍摄
Asparagus officinalis 芦笋 Asparagus 芦笋 Shoots 拍摄
Colocasia esculenta 芋 Taro 芋头 Tubers 块茎
Crambe maritima 海边抽筋 Sea kale 海甘蓝 Leaves, broccolis 叶,花椰菜
Cryptotaenia japonica 鸭儿芹 Honewort Culinary 烹饪
Dactylis glomerata 鸭茅 Orchardgrass 鸭茅属 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
*Lilium 百合属*spp. Lilies 百合花 Bulbs 灯泡
Medicago sativa 紫花苜蓿 Alfalfa 紫花苜蓿 Nitrogen fixation 固氮作用
*Mentha 薄荷属*spp. Japanese mint 日本薄荷 culinary 烹饪的
Panax ginseng 人参 Ginseng 人参 Medicinal 医学
Petasites japonicus 蜂斗菜 Fuki Stalks 跟踪
Phleum pratense 猫尾草属 Timothy grass 梯牧草 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
Zingiber mioga 生姜 Mioga ginger 红姜 Shoots 拍摄
Zingiber officinale 姜 Ginger 姜 Spice, shoots 香料,嫩芽

Fuki, a Japanese native perennial vegetable for full shade and one of the
traditional "seven herbs of spring".*

Fuki 是日本本土的多年生蔬菜,有着完全的遮阳效果,也是传统的“春天的七种草药”之一。

Ground Covers 地被植物
Latin Name 拉丁名 Common Name 通用名称 Uses 用途 Functions 功能
Ipomoea batatas 甘薯 Sweet potato 红薯 Tubers, leaves 块茎,叶子 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
*Medicago 苜蓿属*spp. Bur clover 苜蓿 Nitrogen fixation, weed suppression 固氮作用,杂草抑制
Trifolium pratense 红菽草 Red clover 红三叶草 Nitrogen fixation 固氮作用
Trifolium repens 白三叶草 Ladino clover, white clover 拉迪诺三叶草,白三叶草 Nitrogen fixation, weed suppression 固氮作用,杂草抑制
*Vicia 女名女子名*spp. Vetches 牢骚满腹 Nitrogen fixation 固氮作用

Sweet potato, an excellent weed-suppressing groundcover as well as a food crop.


Annuals: Self-Sown and Broadcast 一年生植物: 自种与播种
Latin Name 拉丁名 Common Name 通用名称 Uses 用途 Functions 功能
Arachis hypogaea 花生 Peanut 花生 Peanuts 花生 Nitrogen fixation, weed suppression 固氮作用,杂草抑制
Brassica napus 甘蓝型油菜 Rapeseed 油菜籽 Oilseed 油籽 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
Brassica rapa 白菜型油菜 Turnip 萝卜 Roots, greens 根,绿色 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
*Brassica 芸苔属*spp. Indian mustard 印度芥末 Greens 绿色 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
*Echinochloa 稗草属*spp. Japanese barnyard millet 日本稗 Grain 谷物 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
Fagopyrum esculentum 荞麦 Buckwheat 荞麦 Grain 谷物 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
Glycine max 大豆属 Soybean 大豆 Beans 豆类 Nitrogen fixation, weed suppression 固氮作用,杂草抑制
Hordeum vulgare 大麦 Barley 大麦 Grain 谷物 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
*Lupinus 羽扇豆属*spp. Lupine 女名女子名 Nitrogen fixation, weed suppression 固氮作用,杂草抑制
Melilotus spp. 草木犀(Melilotus spp Sweet clover 植物; 植物学草木樨 Nitrogen fixation 固氮作用
Panicum mileaceum 米氏黍 Proso millet 粟 Grain 谷物 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
Perilla frutescens 紫苏 Shiso 女名女子名 Culinary 烹饪
Pisium sativum 大蒜 Garden pea 豌豆 Peas 豌豆 Nitrogen fixation, weed suppression 固氮作用,杂草抑制
Raphanus sativus 萝卜 Daikon 白萝卜 Roots, greens 根,绿色 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
Setaria italica 狗尾草 Foxtail millet 谷子 Grain 谷物 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
Trifolium incarnatum 绛三叶 Crimson clover 深红色三叶草 Nitrogen fixation 固氮作用
Trifolium subterraneum 地下三叶 Sub clover 三叶草
Triticum aestivum 普通小麦 wheat 小麦 Grain 谷物 Weed suppression 杂草抑制
Vicia faba 蚕豆 Broad bean 蚕豆 Beans 豆类 Nitrogen fixation, weed suppression 固氮作用,杂草抑制
Vigna angularis 绿豆 Adzuki bean 小豆 Beans 豆类 Nitrogen fixation, weed suppression 固氮作用,杂草抑制
Aster Family crops 紫菀科作物 Burdock, lettuce, edible chrysanthemum 牛蒡,生菜,茼蒿 Greens, roots 绿色,根
Brassica Family crops 芸苔科作物 Chinese cabbage, cabbage, leaf mustard, potherb mustard, black mustard 大白菜,卷心菜,叶芥菜,雪里蕻,黑芥菜 Greens 绿色
Carrot Family crops 胡萝卜科作物 Carrot, parsley, celery 胡萝卜,欧芹,芹菜 Culinary, greens, roots 烹饪,绿色,根
Chenopod Family crops 藜科作物 Spinach, chard 菠菜,甜菜 Greens 绿色
Cucurbit Family crops 葫芦科作物 Watermelon, cucumber, melons, winter squash, bottle gourd, wax melon 西瓜,黄瓜,瓜,南瓜,冬瓜,葫芦,冬瓜 Fruit vegetables, some greens 水果蔬菜,一些蔬菜
Legume Family crops 豆科作物 Kidney bean, asparagus bean, sword bean 四季豆,豇豆,刀豆 Beans 豆类 Nitrogen fixation 固氮作用
Potato Family crops 马铃薯科作物 Tomato, eggplant, potato, peppers, tobacco 番茄,茄子,土豆,辣椒,烟草 Fruit vegetables, tobacco 水果、蔬菜、烟草

Shiso is a Japanese native culinary herb that is almost excessively well-suited
to the food forest understory.




  1. Ramon Magsaysay Award Biography of Masanobu Fukuoka 拉蒙·麦格塞塞奖福冈正信传记
  2. Masanobu Fukuoka, 福冈正信*The Natural Way of Farming, 自然的耕作方式*186
  3. Masanobu Fukuoka, 福冈正信*The Natural Way of Farming, 自然的耕作方式*144
  4. Masanobu Fukuoka, 福冈正信*The Natural Way of Farming, 自然的耕作方式*186
  5. Masanobu Fukuoka, 福冈正信*The Natural Way of Farming, 自然的耕作方式*144
  6. Masanobu Fukuoka, 福冈正信*The Natural Way of Farming, 自然的耕作方式*185
  7. Masanobu Fukuoka, 福冈正信*The Natural Way of Farming, 自然的耕作方式*188
  8. Japanese articles summarized on 日文文章摘要载於Wikipedia 维基百科