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你需要知道的关于用种子种树的一切

食物森林 朴门学徒


原文链接:
https://permacultureapprentice.com/permaculture-growing-trees-from-seeds/

Everything You Need to Know About Growing Trees From Seeds

你需要知道的关于用种子种树的一切

February 12, 2016 by papprentice 28 Comments

2016年2月12日

When I grow old I want to spend my days walking through acre upon acre of fully-established, mature food forest, picking fruit from trees I planted 40 years ago, watching branches slowly swaying in the gentle breeze and listening to birdsong.

当我变老的时候,我想花一天的时间走过一片又一片成熟的食物森林,从我40年前种下的树上摘果子,看着树枝在微风中缓缓摇曳,听着鸟儿的歌唱。

For my dream to become a reality, I will need huge amounts of trees – and not just any generic cultivar, which will last me only 20 years or so. I will need trees with the genetics that will allow them to thrive on my site without me begging and pleading them to flourish.

为了让我的梦想成为现实,我需要大量的树木——而不是任何普通的栽培品种,这些品种只能维持我20年左右的生命。 我将需要与遗传学的树木,将允许他们在我的地点上茁壮成长,没有我乞求和恳求他们蓬勃发展。

I have no interest in trees that are unproductive, susceptible to diseases, or ones that require special types of fertiliser. I am interested in trees that will shout ‘hell yeah! I like your shallow, alkaline soil, and these pests and diseases, is that all you got?’

我对那些生产力低下、易受疾病影响或者需要特殊肥料的树木没有兴趣。 我对树木感兴趣,它们会大喊‘该死,耶! 我喜欢你的浅碱性土壤,还有这些害虫和疾病,你就只有这些吗

In a nutshell, I want to be able to figure out what works effortlessly on my site and then run with it. This is the basis of restoration agriculture and the essence of permaculture principle working with nature instead of fighting against it.

简而言之,我希望能够找出在我的地点上可以轻松工作的东西,然后用它来运行。 这是恢复农业的基础,也是永续经营原则与自然合作而不是与自然对抗的本质。

However, to start, I will need to perform my test runs and find the strongest trees suited for my soil, climate, pests and diseases. To achieve this, I am going to have to grow many of my own trees from seeds.

然而,首先,我需要进行测试,找到最适合我的土壤、气候、害虫和疾病的树木。 为了做到这一点,我将不得不用种子来种植许多我自己的树。

This romantic ideal of growing my own trees is a simple concept in itself, but requires some basic understanding of seed biology and the environmental conditions that tiny seeds need in order to become huge majestic trees…

这种种植我自己的树木的浪漫理想本身是一个简单的概念,但是需要对种子生物学和环境条件有一些基本的了解,小种子需要这些条件才能变成巨大的树木。

So, let’s take a closer look…

那么,让我们仔细看看..。

The wonderful world of seeds 种子的奇妙世界

Oak sapling; Quercus roburOak sapling; Quercus robur – Photo by David Chapman 橡树幼苗; 栎树-摄影: David Chapman

Growing trees from seed is both fun and interesting. Seeds are cheap, and you can get as many free trees as you want or can handle.

用种子种树既有趣又有趣。 种子是便宜的,你可以得到许多免费的树木,因为你想或可以处理。

This is great if you’re concerned about the economics of obtaining significant numbers of trees for your site, then growing trees from seeds will save you plenty of money, but it’s not just that…

这是伟大的,如果你关心经济获得大量的树木为您的地点,然后种植树木种子将节省大量的钱,但它不只是..。

Growing from seeds is particularly important because you have the advantage of selecting the strongest seedlings, and there is always that chance of creating something new.

用种子生长尤其重要,因为你有选择最强壮幼苗的优势,而且总是有机会创造新的东西。

But first, let’s look at the practicalities…

但首先,让我们看看实用性..。

Because only species ‘come true’ from seed, a plant grown from seeds gathered from your favourite apple cultivar is unlikely to have exactly the same characteristics as its parent.

因为只有种子才能实现,所以从你最喜欢的苹果品种收集的种子中生长出来的植物不太可能具有与其亲本完全相同的特性。

This is because seed-grown plants are almost always genetically different from their parents, but why is this the case?

这是因为种子生长的植物几乎总是在基因上与它们的父母不同,但为什么会这样呢?

Well, most fruit bearing trees require cross-pollination to produce a crop. This means that the seeds in your favourite apple cultivar will be a genetic combination between the cultivar along with whichever pollen donor fertilised the flower.

大多数结果树都需要异花授粉才能结出果实。 这意味着你最喜欢的苹果品种的种子将是品种之间的遗传组合,同时也是授粉的花粉供体。

So basically, most apple trees grown from those seeds won’t be true to the parent’s characteristics, unless you are prepared to grow thousands of seedlings and find the offspring with most of the mother tree’s genetics – this now becomes a number game, but that’s how it’s done.

因此,基本上,大多数苹果树从这些种子中长出来并不符合父母的特征,除非你准备好培育成千上万的幼苗,并且找到具有母树遗传基因的后代——这现在变成了一个数字游戏,但这就是它的做法。

If, however, you want a predictable result from your cultivated apple trees, with the fruit being a certain size and with known average production rates, the only way to ensure this is by making a clone of that tree – this is achieved by grafting.

然而,如果你想从你栽培的苹果树上得到一个可预测的结果,果实有一定的大小并且具有已知的平均产量,唯一的方法是通过克隆那棵树——这是通过嫁接实现的。

So what should you grow from seeds? 那么,你应该从种子中培育什么呢?

The short answer is everything, but…

简短的回答就是一切,但是..。

There are certain plants that when grown from seed will have fruits or nuts as good, or better, than the mother tree, meaning you don’t need to grow as many of them to achieve the desired result.

有些植物从种子长出来后,果实或者坚果会和母树一样好,或者更好,这意味着你不需要种很多果实或者坚果来达到你想要的效果。

Some examples include species of walnuts such as heartnut, and even apples such as the ‘Antanovka’ apple (yes, you heard that right!) are one of the varieties that will grow true from seed.

一些例子包括种类的核桃,例如心果,甚至苹果,例如“ Antanovka”苹果(是的,你没听错!) 是从种子长出来的品种之一。

Moreover, something I discovered when researching this subject is that if a tree is a self-pollinator, there is a good chance that you will probably get true to type seeds, providing there are no other pollinators around in your orchard…so that’s good to know!

此外,我在研究这个课题的时候发现,如果一棵树是自花授粉者,那么你很有可能真正地去传播种子,如果你的果园里没有其他授粉者的话... ... 所以知道这一点很好!

All of your N-fixing trees can be easily grown from seed – black locust, honey locust, seaberry, alder, the list goes on….and you’ll probably need a lot of those.

你所有的固氮树可以很容易地从种子种植-黑蝗虫,皂荚,西伯利,赤杨,列表... 和你可能需要很多这些。

And the list does go on …

这样的例子还有很多。

Want to grow your favorite tree from a seed? If so, you need to know what are the ideal conditions for the seed to germinate. 想用种子种出你最喜欢的树吗? 如果是这样,你需要知道什么是种子发芽的理想条件
Download this free cheat sheet and I’ll show you exactly what to do. 下载这个免费的小抄,我会告诉你到底要做什么

Ok, so now you know that it’s definitely worth growing trees from seeds and you even have a list of trees to start out with, now let’s see how you can grow all the trees you can handle.

好了,现在你知道用种子种树是绝对值得的,你甚至有一个树木列表可以开始,现在让我们看看如何种植所有你能种的树。

How to get all the seeds you need 如何得到所有你需要的种子

imgMy recent order of N – fixing tree seeds. 我最近订购的固氮树种子

The first thing you could do to get the seeds is to gather them from their natural environment…

首先要做的就是从自然环境中收集种子。

This is the easiest way. For example, in my area I found few naturalised varieties from which I took seeds.

这是最简单的方法。 例如,在我所在的地区,我发现了几个自然化的品种,从中我获得了种子。

Although their fruit is not that tasty, these will be a good rootstock as they already display the characteristics I need, i.e. the ability to survive in my climate, grow well in my soil, and are pest and disease resistant…

虽然它们的果实不是那么好吃,但它们将是一个很好的根茎,因为它们已经展示了我所需要的特性,即在我的气候中生存的能力,在我的土壤中生长良好,并且具有抗虫害和抗病害的能力。

When you’re taking seeds, choose a plant that displays the characteristics you’re looking for. It is important to check for health and vigour, taking seeds from weak plant results in weak offspring.

当你取种子的时候,选择一种能够展示你所寻找的特性的植物。 检查健康和活力是很重要的,从虚弱的植物中获取种子会导致虚弱的后代。

Collect your seeds after they’ve matured, generally in autumn, and then clean and dry them. Nuts and pods area easy to clean but many seeds in fleshy fruit need little more cleaning. In case you’re wondering ‘how to’ here is a great video to explain it.

在种子成熟后收集种子,一般在秋天,然后清洗干燥。 坚果和豆荚容易清洗,但许多种子在肉质水果需要更多的清洗。 如果你想知道怎么做,这里有一个很棒的视频来解释它。

Now you can simply use newspaper and kitchen towels to dry your seeds…

现在你可以简单地用报纸和厨房毛巾来擦干你的种子。

Voila! You have your seeds …

瞧! 你有你的种子..。

Alternatively, you can just buy them…

或者,你也可以直接买..。

But where from?

但是从哪里来的呢?

Luckily, seeds are easy to ship and can be delivered from anywhere in the world. Of course, there are certain restrictions and conditions that have to be met when importing seeds, so you might want to check first.

幸运的是,种子很容易运输,而且可以从世界任何地方运输。 当然,在进口种子时必须满足一定的限制和条件,所以你可能需要先检查一下。

Buying seeds can be tricky because you’ll need a reputable source. In my example, I ordered my seeds from Balkep, a nearby permaculture project in a similar climate. If the opportunity is available, you can do the same and find someone in your area/region/state from which to order.

购买种子可能是棘手的,因为你需要一个有信誉的来源。 在我的例子中,我从附近一个气候类似的永续栽培项目—— Balkep 订购了种子。 如果有机会,你也可以做同样的事情,找到你所在地区 / 区域 / 州的客户订餐。

I also ordered my Antonovka apple seeds on eBay and received them surprisingly quickly. In a virtual world where everybody can leave feedback on a product, you can easily know who can be trusted on these sites.

我还在 eBay 上订购了我的安东诺夫卡苹果种子,收到的速度出人意料地快。 在一个虚拟世界里,每个人都可以对一个产品留下反馈,你可以很容易地知道在这些地点上谁可以信任。

If you’re after a specific seed and you can’t find it online, look at The Seed Search Book, this is an excellent resource that offers a list of places where you can find any kind of seed imaginable.

如果你正在寻找一个特定的种子,但是你在网上找不到它,看看种子搜索书,这是一个很好的资源,它提供了一个你可以找到任何种子的地方的清单。

Once you got your seeds, store them in sealed containers in a cool and dry area until you’re ready to sow them. Just remember that annually, seed potency is reduced by 10-20%, so you’ll want to use them as soon as possible.

一旦你得到你的种子,把它们储存在密封的容器中,在阴凉干燥的地方,直到你准备好播种。 只要记住,种子的效力每年会减少10-20% ,所以你要尽快使用它们。

Ready to grow trees from seeds? Here are some of your options 准备好用种子种树了吗? 以下是你的一些选择

Generally speaking, there are two ways to grow tree seeds: the natural way, which often includes sowing the seeds outside in autumn, or through “assisted” germination, which is initially done indoors.

一般来说,有两种方式来种植树木种子: 自然的方式,通常包括秋天在外面播种,或者通过“辅助”发芽,最初在室内完成。

The first thing you need to know is that seeds from many species of tree and shrub are dormant and require a period of stratification before they germinate.

首先你需要知道的是,许多种乔木和灌木的种子都处于休眠状态,需要一段时间的分层才能发芽。

In short, stratification requires cold, moist conditions, although in some cases sometimes it’s preceded by a period of warm, moist ones (more about that later).

简而言之,层结需要寒冷、潮湿的条件,尽管在某些情况下,层结之前会有一段温暖、潮湿的时期(后面会详细介绍)。

However, for now, all you need to understand is that the seeds are expecting to go through a winter and germinate in the spring. Without these cold conditions, some seeds will not germinate at all.

然而,现在,你所需要理解的是种子期待经过一个冬天,在春天发芽。 没有这些寒冷的条件,有些种子根本不会发芽。

Sowing outside in the ground would obviously give these seeds the cold they require, but natural cold stratification usually results in the loss of many seeds due to rodents, unreliable cold winter conditions, and so on.

在地下播种显然会使这些种子得到它们所需要的低温,但自然的低温层积往往由于啮齿动物、不可靠的寒冷冬季条件等原因而导致许多种子的损失。

This is why plants that rely on seeds for reproduction produce so many of them. It’s their insurance policy…

这就是为什么依靠种子繁殖的植物会产生这么多种子的原因。 这是他们的保险政策。

On the other hand, growing indoor gives you the opportunity to control the environmental conditions and help to germinate many more seeds.

另一方面,室内种植可以让你有机会控制环境条件,帮助更多的种子发芽。

Let’s go through both options you can choose the most appropriate…

让我们通过这两个选项,你可以选择最合适的..。

OPTION#1 The natural way to grow tree seeds 选择 # 1种植树木种子的自然方法

Seeds have been sprouting into trees for an extremely long time without any help from humans. Just look at your local forest and it can help show you the way.

在没有任何人类帮助的情况下,种子已经在树上发芽很长时间了。 只要看看你当地的森林,它可以帮助你指明方向。

The “natural way” to germinate tree seeds is to allow nature to take its course. Most seeds, when sown in autumn without any pre-treatment, will begin to germinate the following spring. It can’t get easier than that…

让树木种子发芽的“自然方式”就是让大自然顺其自然。 大多数种子在秋天播种时不经任何预处理,第二年春天就会开始发芽。 没有比这更简单的了..。

With autumn planting, seeds are planted outside, sometimes directly in the ground, but more often in containers, before the temperatures fall below 8° C/45° F.

秋季播种时,种子要在室外播种,有时直接种在地里,但更多时候是在温度降至8摄氏度 / 45华氏度以下之前放在容器里。

Here are some of the best practices…

以下是一些最佳实践... ..。

wireonbucketbottomMark Shepard’s 5-Gallon Bucket Tehnique 马克 · 谢泼德的5加仑水桶技术

This is a very simple process. You sow your seeds in plastic nursery containers or buckets like Mark Shepard and mix in some potting soil (see step 3 below). Check out at Mark’s example to see how he does it, that’s pretty straightforward…

这是一个非常简单的过程。 你可以像马克 · 谢泼德那样把种子种在塑料苗圃容器或桶里,然后混入一些盆栽土(见下面的步骤3)。 看看马克的例子,看看他是怎么做到的,这很简单... ..。

Just place this container outside in a sheltered area out of the wind, but somewhere it will receive direct sunlight.

只要把这个容器放在外面一个避风的地方,但是在某个地方它会接收到直接的阳光。

You don’t have to worry about the snow, the cold or the freezing conditions. This is exactly what your seeds need for their outer coating to soften and germinate in spring.

你不必担心下雪、寒冷或者结冰的情况。 这正是你的种子所需要的,使它们的外层在春天软化和发芽。

Cover the container with wire netting to protect the seedling from birds and animals. Check regularly and water if necessary.

用铁丝网覆盖容器,以保护幼苗免受鸟类和动物的伤害。 定期检查,必要时加水。

When your seedlings are large enough to handle, you can transplant then individually into cells, trays or small pots and take them into a greenhouse where you can protect them. Later, plant them on your site as described in step 6.

当你的幼苗长到足够大可以处理的时候,你可以把它们单独移植到细胞、托盘或小盆里,然后把它们带到你可以保护它们的温室里。 然后,按照步骤6的描述将它们种在你的地点上。

This method is recommended for large seeds, for example chestnuts (Castanea spp.), oaks (Quercus spp.) and the walnuts (Juglans spp.).

这种方法推荐用于大种子,如栗子、橡树和胡桃。

However, such seeds don’t store very well and become less viable as they dry out. Sow them directly into deep containers where you can grow them for most of the season.

然而,这样的种子不能很好地储存,当它们变干时就变得不那么有活力了。 把它们直接播种到深的容器里,在那里你可以种植大部分的季节。

SeedbedPlanting seeds in seedbeds. 在苗床上播种

You can sow some seeds, particularly those native to your area, outside in raised seedbeds. First, you’ll need a sheltered site, and, if needed, erect a windbreak or shading.

你可以在室外培育的苗床上播种一些种子,尤其是你所在地区的种子。 首先,你需要一个有遮蔽的地方,如果需要的话,建立一个防风林或遮阳棚。

It is helpful to build a wooden frame, a raised bed, to raise the soil level by 8inches/20cm to improve drainage.

建造一个木框架,一个凸起的床,有助于提高土壤水平8英寸 / 20厘米,以改善排水。

Make sure your seedbed is free of weeds. Seeds require fine tilth and moisture-retentive surface soil that consists of small, even particles. This fine tilth ensures good contact between seeds and soil in order that moisture can be absorbed for germination.

确保你的苗床上没有杂草。 种子需要精细的耕作和保湿的表面土壤,由小的,甚至颗粒组成。 这种良好的耕作确保良好的接触之间的种子和土壤,以便水分可以吸收发芽。

At this stage, you can also incorporate well-rotted leaf mould, which helps because it contains mycorrhizae i.e. soil-born fungi that aids seedling growth and improves soil structure.

在这个阶段,你也可以加入腐烂的叶霉,这有助于因为它含有菌根,即土生真菌,帮助幼苗生长和改善土壤结构。

Finally, always ensure some sort of protection from animals, and remember not to allow germinating seeds to dry out – cover with fleece or loose leaves to reduce the chance of heaving.

最后,一定要确保种子不会受到动物的伤害,记住不要让正在发芽的种子干掉——用羊毛或松散的叶子覆盖,以减少起伏的机会。

Leave the seedling to grow for a while in the seedbed and transplant when ready on the site, as described in step 6.

让幼苗在苗床中生长一段时间,然后就地移栽,如步骤6所述。

For more info about this method and others check AHS Plant Propagation book where they go into details about all aspects of plant propagation.

关于这种方法和其他更多的信息查看 AHS 植物繁殖书,其中他们进入有关植物繁殖的所有方面的细节。

seep treeSepp Holzer’s direct seeded apple tree. 直接播种苹果树

This method involves seeding out considerable numbers of seeds in the area you want your trees to grow. Here is how Sepp Holzer describes the method in his book

这种方法包括在你希望树木生长的地方播下大量的种子。 下面是赛普 · 霍尔泽在他的书中描述的方法..。

His first step is to prepare the soil with soil-improving plants. For this purpose, he uses green manure plants. Once he has prepared the soil, he loosens it for sowing by allowing pigs to graze and dig the green manure plants, this prepares the area for fruit trees.

他的第一步是用改良土壤的植物准备土壤。 为此,他使用了绿肥植物。 一旦他准备好了土壤,他松开土壤播种,允许猪放牧和挖掘绿肥植物,这样就为果树准备好了土地。

His next stage in the process involves sowing the plants. This is performed by spreading and leaving pomace to ferment for about four to five weeks (pomace is the pulp left over from pressing fruit for juice or cider). During fermentation, germination inhibitors are broken down and trees begin to germinate.

在这个过程中,他的下一步是播种。 这是通过摊开和留下渣滓发酵大约四至五个星期(渣滓是从压榨果汁或苹果酒剩下的果肉)。 在发酵过程中,发芽抑制剂被分解,树木开始发芽。

As the seeds start to sprout, many will die off, with only those best suited for the site surviving. Because trees grow in their intended location from the outset, they can naturally adapt themselves to the soil and climatic condition. Later on, Sepp selects only the best ones for grafting and transplants those growing too close to each other.

随着种子开始发芽,许多种子会相继死去,只有那些最适合生存的种子才能存活下来。 因为树木从一开始就生长在预定的位置,所以它们能够自然地适应土壤和气候条件。 后来,Sepp 只选择最好的嫁接和移植植株,这些植株生长得太接近彼此。

This is the simplest and the most economical method for starting out, and you actually end up with the strongest trees adjusted to your local conditions. Can’t get any more permaculture than this …

这是最简单也是最经济的开始方法,实际上你最终会得到适合当地条件的最坚固的树木。 再也没有比这更多的永续栽培了..。

There, that was pretty easy, huh? If you don’t need the advanced stuff you can stop reading here. However, if you want to know how to grow even more seedlings, read on….

好了,很简单吧? 如果你不需要高级的东西,你可以在这里停止阅读。 然而,如果你想知道如何培育更多的幼苗,请继续阅读..。

*Want to grow your favorite tree from a seed? If so, you need to know what are the ideal conditions for the seed to germinate. 想用种子种出你最喜欢的树吗? 如果是这样,你需要知道什么是种子发芽的理想条件******Download this free cheat sheet and I’ll show you exactly what to do. 下载这个免费的小抄,我会告诉你到底要做什么*

OPTION #2. Mimic nature and assist the seeds grow 选择 # 2. 模仿大自然,帮助种子生长

Although natural germination is a great way to start most tree seeds, you can often achieve better and more consistent results through “assisted” germination.

虽然自然发芽是一个伟大的方式启动大多数树种子,你往往可以取得更好的和更一致的结果,通过“协助”发芽。

Basically, this means using various techniques to mimic the role nature plays in causing tree seeds to germinate.

基本上,这意味着使用各种技术来模仿大自然在促使树木种子发芽中所扮演的角色。

In this way, you can control when your seeds germinate by initiating the pre-treatment and stratification at precisely the right time.

通过这种方式,您可以通过在正确的时间启动预处理和分层来控制您的种子何时发芽。

However, first you’ll need to know what kind of treatment your seeds require …

然而,首先你需要知道你的种子需要什么样的治疗..。

Step 1. Work out what treatment the seed needs 第一步。 弄清楚种子需要什么样的处理

Different plants have different needs, some seeds like warmth, some require cold, and some have to be germinated with light.

不同的植物有不同的需求,有些种子喜欢温暖,有些需要冷,有些需要光照才能发芽。

You have to figure out which ones like what … Luckily, there are numerous resources online to help you with that. The Plants for the Future database has an outline for the propagation of temperate climate plants.

你必须弄清楚哪些是像什么... 幸运的是,网上有许多资源可以帮助你。 未来植物数据库有一个温带植物繁殖的大纲。

PFFPlants for the future database. 植物为将来的数据库

Another great resource is Backyard Gardener which gives handy advice on what seeds need to germinate.

另一个伟大的资源是后院园丁,它提供了方便的建议,什么种子需要发芽。

Note what kind of treatment your seeds would need, and for how long they need to be treated. If, for example, you’re planning on planting seeds outside in the spring then timing is important.

注意你的种子需要什么样的处理,以及需要处理多长时间。 例如,如果你计划在春天在户外播种,那么时机就很重要。

Just count backwards on your calendar from the day you intend to plant outside. If the seeds need three months of stratification, count backwards 90 days from the day you would like to plant and start treating seeds on that day.

只要从你打算在户外种植的那天开始倒数你的日历就可以了。 如果种子需要三个月的层积,从你想种植的那一天开始倒数90天,然后在那一天开始处理种子。

Step 2. Treat the seeds to stimulate the germination process 第二步。 处理种子以刺激发芽过程

Many seeds require one or more treatment steps to stimulate the germination process. These steps include: 1) Scarification, 2) Cold Stratification, and 3) Warm Stratification.

许多种子需要一个或多个处理步骤来刺激萌发过程。 这些步骤包括: 1)划痕,2)冷分层,3)暖分层。

Scarification

划痕

scarify

Some tree seeds (such as black locust and others in the Fabaceaea family) have hard seed coats that prevent germination until the coat is broken down to admit moisture to the seed.

有些树种(如黑刺槐和其他 Fabaceaea 家族的种子)有硬质种皮,这种种皮会阻止种子发芽,直到种皮被分解以吸收水分为止。

Nature softens the coats of these hard seeds by subjecting the seeds to warm, moist conditions in spring, when bacterial activity is at its height. This is, however, a very slow process and can take up to two years before the outer coating is softened up enough for the seeds to germinate.

春季,当细菌活动达到高峰时,大自然会让种子处于温暖、潮湿的环境中,从而软化这些坚硬的种子的外壳。 然而,这是一个非常缓慢的过程,可能需要长达两年的时间,才能使种子的外层软化到足以让种子发芽。

You want to accelerate that process, and to do this you can use sandpaper or soak the seeds in hot, but not boiling water for up to 48 hours.

你想要加快这个过程,你可以使用砂纸或者把种子浸泡在热水中,但是不要用沸水煮48小时。

For this, simply run hot water from the tap and fill a cup, drop your seeds in, and simply let them soak while it cools.

要做到这一点,只需从水龙头里倒入热水,装满一个杯子,把种子放进去,冷却后让它们浸泡。

Soak for 24 hours first, after that time they should be swollen with absorbed water. Repeat the process if needed for another 24 hours – here is a video explaining the process.

先浸泡24小时,之后应充分吸收水分。 如果需要的话,再重复这个过程24小时——这里有一个解释这个过程的视频。

Cold Moist Stratification

寒冷潮湿层结

stratifyChilling the seeds in the fridge. 在冰箱里冷却种子

With cold moist stratification, you’re emulating winter conditions. Here is what I mean, when seeds fall to the ground in autumn they are covered with leaves, snow falls over them and they’re kept moist and cold until the spring – this is exactly what you want to replicate with cold most stratification.

在寒冷潮湿的层化过程中,你在模仿冬天的情况。 这就是我的意思,当种子在秋天落到地面,它们被叶子覆盖,雪落在它们上面,它们保持潮湿和寒冷,直到春天——这正是你想在大多数寒冷层化情况下复制的。

By the way, this is the most common technique you’ll be using for your seeds and involves chilling the seeds in refrigerator at 34-41° F 1-5°C.

顺便说一下,这是你将要使用的最常用的种子冷藏技术,包括将种子冷藏在34-41 f 1-5 c。

To chill a small number of seeds, soak them in water for 48 hours and allow to drain. Next place your seeds on a paper towel, moisten it with water and fold. Put the moist paper towel in a labelled and sealed plastic bag and refrigerate for 4-20 weeks before sowing. This generally takes an average of 12 weeks, but is dependent upon the species.

为了冷却少量的种子,将它们浸泡在水中48小时,让它们排干。 接下来把种子放在一张纸巾上,用水湿润它,然后折叠。 将湿纸巾放入有标签及密封的胶袋内,于播种前冷藏4-20星期。 这通常需要平均12周的时间,但取决于物种。

For larger numbers, store the seed in a plastic bag filled with peat or a mixture of equal parts peat and sand or vermiculite. This should be moist but not wet. You should periodically turn the bag to circulate air and avoid a build up of heat or CO2 released by seeds.

如果需要更多的种子,可以把种子放在一个塑料袋里,里面装满泥炭或者泥炭和沙子或蛭石的混合物。 这应该是潮湿的,但不是湿的。 你应该定期打开袋子使空气循环,避免热量或种子释放的二氧化碳积聚。

As spring approaches, start checking for germination inside the bags in the fridge. If your seeds start to germinate prematurely, sow them at once.

随着春天的临近,开始检查冰箱里的袋子里是否有发芽的迹象。 如果你的种子开始过早发芽,马上播种。

Warm Moist Stratification

温暖潮湿层结

The seeds of some trees, for example hawthorn, lime and mountain ash, require a period of warm stratification prior to cold. They are ‘doubly dormant’ and germinate naturally after 18 months, or in the second spring, after ripening, with only a few seeds germinating in the first spring.

一些树木的种子,例如山楂、石灰和白蜡树的种子,在寒冷之前需要一段温度分层期。 它们处于双重休眠状态,在18个月后或者成熟后的第二个春天自然发芽,在第一个春天只有少数种子发芽。

The warm stratification stage is designed to replicate the seed’s summer dormancy when it is often imbedded in warm damp soil or mud.

温层积阶段的目的是复制种子的夏季休眠时,往往是在温暖潮湿的土壤或泥土。

For warm stratification, follow the same steps outlined for cold stratification, but place the plastic bag in a warm location at, or slightly above, room temperature of 72 to 86°F, 20-25°C.

对于温度分层,按照冷分层的相同步骤,但是把塑料袋放在温暖的地方,在室温72-86华氏度,20-25摄氏度或稍高于室温的地方。

Keep them warm for up to 12 weeks and then cold stratify in the refrigerator. Occasionally check the seeds for signs of early germination. If the seeds begin to germinate, then plant as normal.

让它们保持温暖长达12个星期,然后在冰箱冷层。 偶尔检查一下种子是否有早发芽的迹象。 如果种子开始发芽,然后正常种植。

Step 3. Prepare your seed potting mix from these ingredients 第三步。 准备您的种子盆栽混合从这些成分

soil

While you’re treating the seeds it’s time to prepare your potting mix. Any propagation medium must be moisture retentive but also porous to keep it aerated. It must be sufficiently free draining so it doesn’t become waterlogged, but not so much that the medium dries out.

当你在处理种子的时候,是时候准备你的混合盆栽了。 任何繁殖介质必须是保湿的,但也多孔,以保持通气。 它必须有足够的自由排水,这样它就不会被水淹没,但也不会太多以至于介质变干。

Your seed potting mix should also have a fine texture, to ensure good contact with small seeds. Nonetheless, it generally doesn’t need to contain a large supply of nutrients because the seedlings won’t be left in it for very long.

您的种子盆栽混合物也应该有一个良好的纹理,以确保良好的接触小种子。 尽管如此,它通常不需要包含大量的营养物质,因为幼苗不会在里面呆很长时间。

For making this kind of a ‘special’ medium, soil mix is usually preferred, to garden soil, most frequently equal parts peat moss (or substitute coconut coir) and perlite, with a pinch of compost to give seeds something to chew on.

要制作这种“特殊”培养基,通常首选的是土壤混合物,而不是花园土壤,最常见的是等量的泥炭藓(或代替椰子椰壳)和珍珠岩,再加上少量的混合肥料,让种子有东西可以咀嚼。

Step 4. Sow the seeds and make them germinate by providing right conditions 第四步。 播下种子,并通过提供适当的条件使它们发芽

IMG_1362My black locust seeds germinating in a closed plastic case 我的黑刺槐种子在一个封闭的塑料盒中发芽

You are now ready to sow your pre-treated seeds into individual containers or into seed trays.

您现在准备播种您的预处理种子到个人容器或种子托盘。

A rough rule of thumb from Martin Crawford’s book Creating a Forest Garden is that seeds under about 6mm (0.25′′) across are fine to sow in a seed tray, but any larger ones should be sown in a deeper container. This is because the fast-growing taproots on larger seeds can easily get broken when transplanting.

根据马丁•克劳福德(Martin Crawford)在《创造一个森林花园》(Creating a Forest Garden)一书中的粗略经验法则,6毫米(0.25′)以下的种子可以在种子盘中播种,但较大的种子应该种在更深的容器中。 这是因为大种子上快速生长的主根在移栽时容易断裂。

Be careful that the seeds are planted at the recommend soil depth. Most seeds should be planted just below the soil surface, at no more than twice their thickness.

要注意种子要种在推荐的土壤深度。 大多数种子应该种植在土壤表面以下,不超过其厚度的两倍。

These tiny seeds don’t contain sufficient energy to dig their way through dense soil, and some actually require light to germinate. That means that the seeds need to be on top of the soil, if you bury them, they’ll sit there forever.

这些微小的种子没有足够的能量在稠密的土壤中开辟道路,有些种子实际上需要光照才能发芽。 这意味着种子需要放在土壤表面,如果你把它们埋起来,它们会永远留在那里。

Give the seeds, warmth, moisture and light…

给种子,温暖,水分和光..。

Generally, seeds require water, warmth, air, light, and sometimes nutrients to grow. Therefore, after planting your seeds, gently water them and keep them moist but not wet.

一般来说,种子生长需要水,温度,空气,光线,有时还需要营养。 因此,播种后,温和地浇水,保持它们湿润而不是湿润。

Maintaining high moisture and relative humidity is critical to germinating seeds. You can increase the humidity by enclosing the seed tray in a closed case, ensuring the vents remain closed until the seeds have germinated.

保持高水分和高相对湿度是种子发芽的关键。 你可以把种子盘放在一个封闭的箱子里来增加湿度,确保通风口在种子发芽之前一直关闭。

Warmth speeds germination, so try to give your seeds bottom heat of about 21°C (70°F) if you can, although 18°C is a good average for root growth.

温暖加速萌发,所以尽量给你的种子底部热约21摄氏度(70华氏度) ,如果可以,虽然18摄氏度是一个良好的平均根生长。

You can achieve this with heating mats. On this occasion, I ordered one from eBay, but alternatively you could work on a heating bench where the warmth is provided by flexible heating cables embedded in a layer of sand.

你可以用加热垫来达到这个目的。 在这个场合,我从 eBay 上订购了一个,但是你也可以选择在加热工作台上工作,那里的温度是由柔韧的加热电缆嵌入一层沙子提供的。

Keep the trays in a warm but dimly lit location. Germination can be as quick as a few days or as slow as several months, depending on the species and the environmental conditions.

将托盘放在温暖但光线昏暗的地方。 根据物种和环境条件的不同,种子萌发的速度可以快到几天,也可以慢到几个月。

Once the seeds germinate, move the seedlings to a brighter location. If you have the setup, place them under the grow lights, where they should be cool and at room temperature. Set the timers to give 12 hours of light and twelve hours of darkness.

一旦种子发芽,移动幼苗到一个更明亮的位置。 如果你已经准备好了,把它们放在室温下凉快的种植灯下。 定时器设定为光照12小时,黑暗12小时。

Step 5. Transplant and harden off the young plants 第五步。 移植并使幼苗变硬

Rootrainers Racking Station/Greenhouse

Rootrainers Racking Station/Greenhouse 屋顶训练工作站 / 温室

In the early stages of your seedlings, most of the nutrition will actually be provided by the seeds themselves, at least for the first month or so of growth. You can even add ½” of compost on top after the young plants get up to 3-4 inches to offer a little extra nutrition while in that growing stage.

在幼苗的早期阶段,大部分营养实际上是由种子本身提供的,至少在生长的第一个月左右。 你甚至可以添加1-2“堆肥上面后,幼苗长到3-4英寸,提供一点额外的营养,而在生长阶段。

However, after a month, you might want to consider repotting or planting out to avoid a pot-bound root system. For this, you’ll need larger deeper containers and fresh soil mix…

但是,一个月后,你可能需要考虑移盆或外出种植,以避免盆栽的根系。 为此,你需要更大更深的容器和新鲜的土壤混合物..。

Your potting soil mix should release nutrients slowly, because you’ll probably need to grow your seedlings for at least a whole season before they become sturdy enough to plant out.

你的盆栽土壤混合物应该缓慢释放养分,因为你可能需要至少种植一整季的幼苗,然后它们才会变得足够结实,可以播种。

To do this, use your seed mix you made before and add a slow-release fertiliser with trace elements to provide a gradual supply over a whole season. Mix in mycorrhizal spores into your seed soil mix and feed your seedlings from time to time with a homemade liquid fertiliser made from nettles and comfrey soaked in water for four to five days.

要做到这一点,使用你之前制作的混合种子,添加一种含有微量元素的缓释肥料,在整个季节逐渐供应。 在种子土壤混合物中混入菌根孢子,时不时用自制的液体肥料喂养幼苗,这些肥料是用荨麻和紫草在水中浸泡4到5天。

Martin Crawford recommends transplanting tree and shrub seedlings into deep-cell containers called ‘Rootrainers’ because these create an excellent branched root system and prevent any circling roots. I haven’t tried this yet, but they’re in the post!

马丁 · 克劳福德建议将树木和灌木的幼苗移植到称为“ rootrainer”的深细胞容器中,因为这样可以产生一个优秀的分枝根系,并防止根系盘旋。 我还没试过这个,不过它们已经上市了!

Now you should gradually expose your plants to outside conditions so they can harden off a little before permanently putting them outside to brave the elements.

现在,你应该逐渐将你的植物暴露在外界条件下,这样它们就可以在永久性地把它们放在室外以适应外界环境之前稍微变硬一点。

Set the small plants outside in dappled sunlight, sheltered from wind for one to two hours on the first day, and then increase outdoor time by a hour each day. Acclimate plants to sunlight by gradually moving them into a sunnier location after a few days.

把小植物放在外面斑驳的阳光下,第一天可以避风一到两个小时,然后每天增加一个小时的户外时间。 让植物适应阳光,在几天后逐渐把它们移到阳光充足的地方。

Step 6. Plant on your site in the desired location and select the most adapted ones 第六步。 将植物种植在你的地点所需的位置,并选择最适合的位置

sheer_total_utter_neglectMark Shepard’s apple trees. 马克 · 谢泼德的苹果树

When to plant on your site?

什么时候在你的地点上种植?

Well, sometimes seeds germinating in the spring establish themselves well and are ready to plant out in the autumn of the same year. However, this is subject to species hardiness and, of course, the weather conditions in a given year.

嗯,有时种子在春天发芽,很好地建立自己,并准备在同一年的秋天播种。 然而,这取决于物种的耐寒性,当然还有某一年的天气状况。

A height of 40-50cm is just about OK for planting out, but at less than this, it would be good idea to grow the plant on for another year. Very small trees are easily swamped by weeds or damaged by pests unless you provide some form of protection.

40-50厘米的高度适合外植,但如果低于这个高度,最好再种一年。 除非你提供某种形式的保护,否则很小的树木很容易被杂草淹没或被害虫破坏。

Whether you decide to plant in the first year second, in this step you’re ready to plant the young trees in the desired locations.

无论你是否决定在第二年种植,在这一步,你已经准备好在想要的位置种植幼树了。

You can do this by planting way too many, way too close – as per Mark Shepard’s STUN method recommendation – let them grow and then remove the losers.

你可以这样做,种植方式太多,方式太接近-按照马克谢泼德的昏迷方法建议-让他们增长,然后删除失败者。

To remove the undesirable ones you’ll need to work out how you intend to evaluate your seedlings as early as possible. This means having a list of desirable features that you wish to aim for (resistant/immune to major local disease, early fruiting, tasty fruit …)

为了移除不受欢迎的植株,你需要弄清楚你打算如何尽早评估你的幼苗。 这意味着你要列出一系列你想要的特征(对主要的当地疾病有抵抗力 / 免疫力,早期结果,美味的水果...)

The losers will end up as firewood, wood chips, shitake mushrooms…

失败者会变成木柴,木片,香菇..。

*Want to grow your favorite tree from a seed? If so, you need to know what are the ideal conditions for the seed to germinate. 想用种子种出你最喜欢的树吗? 如果是这样,你需要知道什么是种子发芽的理想条件******Download this free cheat sheet and I’ll show you exactly what to do. 下载这个免费的小抄,我会告诉你到底要做什么*

CONCLUSION 结论

Whew. Congratulations, you made it.

呼。 恭喜你,你成功了。

You now know that you basically have two options when growing trees from seed: The natural way, which often includes sowing the seeds in the autumn, or through “assisted” germination, which is initially done indoors.

您现在知道,从种子生长树木时,基本上有两种选择: 自然方式,通常包括在秋天播种种子,或者通过“辅助”发芽,最初在室内完成。

Of course, the easiest way is just to sow outdoors in autumn and let nature take its course, but if you want to be serious about growing your trees, you’ll need to be familiar with both ways.

当然,最简单的方法就是在秋天在户外播种,顺其自然,但是如果你想认真地种植你的树木,你需要熟悉这两种方法。

Once you plant your seedlings on your site, you start the development of fruiting plants ideally suited to your local area. This is a lifetime of work, but with great personal rewards.

一旦你在你的地点上种植了你的幼苗,你就开始发展适合你当地地区的果树。 这是一个终生的工作,但有巨大的个人回报。

If you have more questions, comments or feedback about how to grow trees from seeds, I would like to hear them.

如果你有更多关于如何从种子中生长树木的问题,评论或反馈,我想听听他们。

Leave your thoughts below and I promise to find you an answer!

把你的想法留在下面,我保证会给你一个答案!

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