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@zhongdao 2019-11-22T13:24:58.000000Z 字数 8186 阅读 475

如何种植树木和灌木,朴门学徒的永续栽培方式

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https://permacultureapprentice.com/planting-trees-and-shrubs-permaculture-apprentice-way/

How to plant trees and shrubs, the Permaculture Apprentice way

如何种植树木和灌木,学徒的永续栽培方式

November 20, 2019 by papprentice Leave a Comment

20,2019 by papprentice Leave a Comment

There is one thing that always makes my head nod with approval like this guy…

有一件事总是让我像这个家伙一样点头表示赞同。

img

It’s when I see an older person planting trees that he or she almost certainly won’t live to see mature and produce in their full glory.

当我看到一个老人在种树,他或她几乎肯定不会活着看到成熟和生产在他们的全部荣耀。

For example, they may be planting chestnuts or walnuts and other long-growing trees and knowingly leaving them for future generations.

例如,他们可能会种植栗子或核桃以及其他长期生长的树木,并有意识地将它们留给后代。

In my book that’s a sure sign of selflessness and responsibility towards a better future. It definitely reminds me of that Greek proverb: *“A society grows great when old men plant trees whose shade they know they shall never sit in”.*

在我看来,这是一种无私的精神和对美好未来的责任感。 这绝对让我想起了希腊的一句谚语: “当老人们种植树木,他们知道他们永远不会坐在树荫下时,社会就会变得伟大。”。

Now, although I’m in my late thirties and thus still relatively young, I’m very much aware that there are no guarantees that I’ll live long enough to see any of the trees I planted reach maturity. I do hope to sit under their shade and eat the fruit and nuts they bear – but I don’t take that for granted.

现在,虽然我已经快四十岁了,因此仍然相对年轻,但是我非常清楚,我不能保证我能活到看到我种的任何一棵树长大成人。 我确实希望坐在它们的树荫下,吃它们生长的水果和坚果——但我并不认为这是理所当然的。

That’s why I don’t see the trees and shrubs I plant just as merely providing for my own or my family’s immediate needs, I also see it as a legacy for my grandchildren and fulfilling my part of making a planet better for generations to come.

这就是为什么我不认为我种植的树木和灌木仅仅是为了满足我自己或我的家庭的迫切需要,我也把它看作是给我的子孙后代留下的遗产,以及为了子孙后代更好地创造一个更好的星球我所做的贡献。

Suffice to say the simple act of tree and shrub planting makes me feel really good at the end of the day when I look at what I’ve just set in motion. Half a day of ‘hard work’ for what might be years and years or even a century of benefits for people and animals.

我只想说,种植树木和灌木这样简单的行为,在一天结束的时候,当我看着我刚刚开始的事情时,让我感觉真的很好。 半天的“辛勤工作”可能会给人类和动物带来一年又一年甚至一个世纪的好处。

That’s a permaculture principle of ‘make least change for the greatest effect’ in all its glory…

这是一个永续经营的原则,就是在所有的荣耀中“为了最大的效果而做最少的改变” ... ..。

Since I have been planting trees and shrubs just recently all this good feeling is still fresh in my mind, so today I wanted to share how I go about it.

因为我最近一直在种植树木和灌木,所有这种美好的感觉仍然记忆犹新,所以今天我想和大家分享一下我是如何做到的。

There are certain things that make the methods I use a little different from anything you might have read so far, and that’s why I call it “planting trees and shrubs, the Permaculture Apprentice way”.

有一些事情使得我使用的方法与你们目前读到的有些不同,这就是为什么我称之为“种植树木和灌木,永续栽培学徒的方法”。

Let me outline this method for you:

让我为你概述一下这个方法:

imgOnce this cherry tree grows to full size, I might not be here to witness it, but hopefully Dorian and his kids will… 一旦这棵樱桃树长到正常大小,我可能不会在这里见证它,但希望道林和他的孩子们会..

STEP 1: Prep the trees/shrubs

第一步: 准备好树木 / 灌木

First, grab yourself an appropriately sized bucket and fill it with water, and then add a small amount of kelp extract and molasses.

首先,拿一个适当大小的桶,装满水,然后加入少量海带提取物和糖浆。

Remove your plants from the container or, in the case of bare root stock, unwrap the roots and soak in this solution for at least 20 minutes.

从容器中移出你的植物,或者,如果是裸根砧木,打开根部,在这种溶液中浸泡至少20分钟。

imgSome honeysuckle shrubs ( Lonicera caerulea) getting the treatment. 一些金银花灌木(蓝靛果忍冬)正在接受这种处理

This will help reduce transplant stress since kelp and molasses are rich in micro-nutrients and trace elements and fungal hyphae in the surrounding soil are encouraged to rapidly connect to the sugary-sweet roots.

这将有助于减少移植压力,因为海带和糖蜜富含微量营养素和微量元素,并鼓励周围土壤中的真菌菌丝迅速与甜甜的根系相连。

Even better, if you can, soak the roots in a bucket of kelp/molasses solution the night before planting. But make sure not to leave the roots soaking for more than 24 hours.

如果可以的话,最好在种植前一晚将根部浸泡在一桶海带 / 糖蜜溶液中。 但是一定不要让根部浸泡超过24小时。

If your soil seems lifeless and you worry it has no fungal hyphae, don’t fret, we’ll remedy this in the steps to follow…

如果你的土壤似乎没有生命,你担心它没有真菌菌丝,不要烦恼,我们将补救这在以下步骤..。

STEP 2: Dig a proper hole

第二步: 挖一个合适的洞

Now dig a large enough hole, aim for it to be as deep as the root system but at least twice as wide.

现在挖一个足够大的洞,目标是让它和根系一样深,但至少要两倍宽。

imgIn my case the holes were rather small since the shrubs were in a relatively small container. Also, I’ve done some soil prep with cover crops so the surrounding soil was already loose. 在我的例子中,洞是相当小的,因为灌木在一个相对小的容器里。 此外,我已经做了一些覆盖作物的土壤准备,所以周围的土壤已经松动

The undisturbed soil under the tree/shrub prevents undesired settling and the loose soil zone at the sides helps the plants to start spreading their roots and grow more easily. If you don’t make it easy for them in the beginning to penetrate into the surrounding soil, they may end up circling around.

树木 / 灌木下的原状土壤阻止了不希望的沉降,两侧松散的土壤带有助于植物开始扩展根系,更容易生长。 如果一开始不让它们轻易地渗入周围的土壤,它们可能最终会绕圈。

As you dig check the hole depth and ground level – test it out by putting the plant into the hole. You want to make sure that you keep the graft union of your trees above ground level at 4 inches (10 cm), otherwise the union will establish its own roots if buried, which overrides the desired rootstock effect.

在你挖洞的时候,检查洞的深度和地面水平——把植物放进洞里测试一下。 你需要确保你的树木嫁接处在离地面4英寸(10厘米)的高度,否则,如果埋在地下,这个嫁接处会自己建立起根系,这会超过预期的根茎效果。

STEP 3: Apply mycorrhizal fungi/indigenous micro-organisms to bare roots

步骤3: 在裸根上施用菌根真菌 / 土著微生物

Next, you want to sprinkle mycorrhizal inoculant into the hole!

接下来,你要把菌根接种剂洒进洞里!

The fungal allies can increase the effective root zone of a young tree or shrub by hundreds of times in a matter of weeks.

这些真菌同盟者可以在几个星期内使一棵小树或小灌木的有效根区增加数百倍。

There are commercial fungal inoculates readily available but there is also something much better; soil from a healthy and local forest ecosystem.

有商业真菌接种容易获得,但也有更好的东西,从健康和当地森林生态系统的土壤。

Go to your local forest and find a WILD fruit or nut tree, depending on what you’re planting. That tree, or better said the soil surrounding the tree, has mycorrhizal species that are absolutely suited to your bioregion.

去你当地的森林,找一棵野生水果或坚果树,这取决于你种的是什么。 那棵树,或者更确切地说是树周围的土壤,有完全适合你的生物区域的菌根物种。

img

Get a small amount of topsoil taken from the root zone. When you’re digging, the closer you can get to the roots the better.

从根部取少量表土。 当你在挖掘的时候,越接近根部越好。

Add this magic stuff to your planting hole!

把这个神奇的东西添加到你的种植洞里!

STEP 4: Add soil amendments and backfill the hole

步骤4: 添加土壤改良剂,并回填洞口

Unless your soil is really poor, you don’t need to add extra materials to the planting hole, especially if you’re planning on using mulch or cover crops as a soil management technique.

除非你的土壤非常贫瘠,否则你不需要在种植孔中添加额外的材料,特别是如果你计划使用覆盖物或覆盖作物作为土壤管理技术。

On the other hand, if your soil is poor, and most abused soils are, sprinkling the bottom with a little rock powder – rock phosphate (for early root development) and the same amount of Azomite (for trace nutrients) – will be okay.

另一方面,如果你的土壤很贫瘠,而且大多数土壤都很贫瘠,那么在底部撒上少量的粉末状岩石——磷酸盐(用于早期根系发育)和等量的氮化物(用于微量营养)——就可以了。

Even better sprinkle this stuff on the dug-out pile of soil, then as you backfill it will all get thoroughly mixed out.

最好把这些东西撒在挖出来的土堆上,然后当你回填的时候,它们会被完全混合在一起。

img

Ok, so refill the hole with the soil you took out.

好的,把你挖出来的土填满这个洞。

Try to backfill in layers, carefully firming the soil with downward pressure every now and then to make sure you’re filling in all the voids so there are no air pockets, as they can block root growth.

试着回填土层,时不时小心地用向下的压力把土壤紧实,以确保你填满了所有的空隙,这样就没有空隙了,因为它们可以阻止根系的生长。

STEP 5: Add thick layers of mulch – cardboard + fungal compost

第五步: 添加厚层护根纸板 + 真菌堆肥

Finally add a thick layer of mulch to knock back sod intrusion, ideally for several years while simultaneously feeding the tree roots/microorganisms.

最后,添加一层厚厚的覆盖物,以防止草皮侵入,最好能持续几年,同时喂养树根 / 微生物。

For this first use thick layers of newspaper or cardboard (1 m2 minimum) to cut off light to any competing plants that may still be capable of making a comeback in the immediate area around the tree-planting hole.

首先使用厚厚的一层报纸或硬纸板(至少1平方米)来切断任何竞争植物的光线,这些植物可能仍然有能力在植树洞周围的直接地区恢复。

img

Then top dress with (~10 l/2 gallons) fungal compost. The imperative is on creating and sustaining fungal conditions for the trees and shrubs.

然后在上面铺上大约10升 / 2加仑的真菌堆肥。 当务之急是为树木和灌木创造和维持真菌的条件。

…but not just any fungal compost, use the rich forest floor fungal compost. We are striving to recreate a local forest soil ecosystem that would help your trees and shrubs grow better.

但不是普通的真菌堆肥而是丰富的森林地面真菌堆肥。 我们正在努力重建一个当地森林土壤生态系统,将有助于您的树木和灌木生长更好。

Go to the forest and try to find piles of decomposing wood, branches, wood chips, leaves…

去森林里找一堆堆的木头,树枝,木屑,树叶..。

imgHoney(suckle), look what I found in the forest… 亲爱的,看我在森林里找到了什么..

Grab this fungal duff and spread it around your trees and shrubs.

抓住这些真菌的尘土,然后把它们铺在你的树木和灌木上。

img

That’s it. Now grab a drink and reflect on what you just did!

就是这样。现在抓起一杯酒,好好想想你刚才做了什么!


There you have it, planting trees and shrubs, the Permaculture Apprentice way.

在那里你有它,种植树木和灌木,学徒的永续栽培方式。

If this method piqued your interest and you want to learn more about how to use native fungi to improve your food forest soil quality check out this blog post…

如果这个方法激起了你的兴趣,你想了解更多关于如何使用天然真菌来改善你的食物森林土壤质量检查这篇博客文章..。

In closing, I hope you’ll use the guide and put it to practical use because more than ever we need trees and shrubs in the ground and some significant regenerative action taking place.

最后,我希望你们能使用这份指南并将其付诸实践,因为我们比以往任何时候都更加需要地面上的树木和灌木,以及一些重要的再生行动正在发生。

And remember one day your kids, grandkids and whoever comes after them will appreciate your efforts!

记住,总有一天你的孩子、孙子和他们的后代会感激你的努力!

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Happy planting,

播种愉快,

-William

威廉

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