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模仿自然建造深层肥沃土壤的权威指南

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The Definitive Guide to Building Deep Rich Soils by Imitating Nature

模仿自然建造深层肥沃土壤的权威指南

October 9, 2015 by papprentice 34 Comments

2015年10月9日

As some of you may have heard, I’ve finally got my hands on a piece of a land and now when I’m finally able to get my hands dirty I’m faced with the reality of my shallow, compacted, alkaline and sometimes waterlogged for months soils. This has come as a huge disappointment as I had big plans for annual gardens, food forests and perennial grasslands.

正如你们中的一些人可能已经听说过的,我终于得到了一块土地,现在当我终于能够亲自动手时,我面对的土壤现实是浅,密实,碱性,有时几个月的浸水。 这是一个巨大的失望,因为我之前制定了一年一度的花园,食物森林和常年草原的宏伟计划。

After taking a deeper look into this subject, I began to realize that, in essence, my only two options are importing good soil (not going to happen!) or improving the soil I already have. The latter offers me the chance to regenerate the soils and actually learn something about soil and soil biology, so I’ve now embraced the challenge.

在深入研究了这个问题之后,我开始意识到,从本质上讲,我唯一的两个选择就是引进良好的土壤(不会发生的!) 或者改良我已有的土壤。 后者让我有机会重新生长土壤,并真正学习一些关于土壤和土壤生物学的知识,所以我现在接受了这个挑战。

Something fascinating I learnt while reading up on the subject is that there are more microorganisms in a teaspoon full of healthy soil than there are people in the world. When we add in earthworms, nematodes and other soil life we can see that there is much more to soil than we realize looking down from above.

我在研读这个课题的过程中发现了一个有趣的现象,那就是一茶匙的健康土壤中的微生物比世界上的人口还要多。 当我们加上蚯蚓、线虫和其他土壤生物,我们可以看到,土壤中有更多的东西,比我们从上面看到的要多得多。

This kind of biological richness is something that we in permaculture should try to replicate in our gardens. But what I’ve learned is that emulating a grassland is different than emulating a forest, and for this reason you first have to be clear on which ecosystem you’re trying to copy. Here is why.

这种生物的丰富性,是我们在永久性栽培中应该试图在我们的花园中复制的东西。 但是我学到的是,模仿草原和模仿森林是不同的,因此你首先必须清楚你要模仿的是哪种生态系统。 原因如下。

Ecological succession as a model for improving the soil

生态演替作为改良土壤的模式

succession2

Ecological succession is a process of change in the species structure over time. The established species influence the soil composition and alter it over time. As you can see from my sketches there is a significant difference in soil found in the bare field than in the forest. The main difference lies in what kind of microbes are most prevalent in the soil and what they feed upon. Generally, fungi respond to surface decomposition, whereas bacteria prefer soil disturbance.

生态演替是物种结构随时间变化的过程。 既定的物种影响土壤的组成,并随着时间的推移而改变。 正如你从我的草图中看到的那样,裸地的土壤和森林的土壤有很大的不同。 主要的区别在于什么样的微生物在土壤中最为普遍,以及它们以什么为食。 一般来说,真菌对表面分解有反应,而细菌更喜欢土壤干扰。

The weight of fungi present in forest soils is much greater than the weight of bacteria. In grasslands, however, there is around an equal distribution of the two. In agricultural soils that are routinely tilled, in contrast, the weight of fungi is less than that of bacteria.

森林土壤中真菌的重量比细菌的重量大得多。 然而,在草原上,两者的分布大致相等。 相比之下,在经常耕作的农业土壤中,真菌的重量比细菌的轻。

But how does this apply to me, you may ask? Well, if you are trying to create a healthy pasture or self-fertilizing food forest, or even just a productive annual garden you will need to simulate the conditions where the intended plants are originally found.

你可能会问,这对我又有什么用呢? 好吧,如果你想要创造一个健康的牧场或者自我施肥的食物森林,或者甚至只是一个高产的年度花园,你需要模拟预期植物最初被发现的环境。

So, let’s look at three most common situations you’ll be faced with on your farm: annual gardens, grasslands and food forests, and see what steps you can take to bring your soil to life.

所以,让我们来看看你在农场上面临的三种最常见的情况: 一年一度的花园、草原和食用林,看看你能采取什么措施让你的土壤复苏。

Want to improve your soil the permaculture way? Skip the guesswork and use this FREE Checklist as your reference. 想改善土壤的永续栽培方式? 跳过猜测,使用这个免费的清单作为你的参考

1. Annual Gardens/Market Gardens

1. 周年花园 / 街市花园

Biologically intensive indeed

Annual plants colonize bare soil following a disturbance. As they wither and die at the end of their growing season their remains fall on the ground and act as mulch that bacteria and earthworms feed upon. This cycle repeats itself annually, with organic matter building and the creation of humus. Here is what to do to replicate these conditions.

一年生植物在受到干扰后生长在裸露的土壤中。 当它们在生长季节结束时枯萎和死亡时,它们的遗体落在地上,起到护根物的作用,细菌和蚯蚓以此为食。 这个循环每年重复一次,有机物质的生成和腐殖质的生成。 以下是复制这些条件的方法。

As can be seen in nature, to establish annuals you have to intervene mechanically to prepare beds for crop planting and establishment. However, you don’t want till deep as you don’t want to disturb the soil structure.

在自然界中可以看到,要建立一年生植物,你必须机械地进行干预,以便为作物种植和建立设施准备苗床。 然而,你不想要直到深,因为你不想扰乱土壤结构。

The undisturbed subsoil lets earthworms dig their tunnels and provides aeration and drainage while their exertions bind together crumbs of soil. They play an important role in healthy soil structure and replace mechanical with biological tillage.

未受干扰的底土可以让蚯蚓挖掘隧道,提供通风和排水,同时它们的运动可以把碎屑粘合在一起。 它们在健康的土壤结构中发挥重要作用,并以生物耕作代替机械耕作。

If you don’t compromise earthworms, microbes and other soil organisms through soil inversion they can perform much of the tillage needed to create and maintain loose, fertile soils. However, if your soils are biologically dead those microbes have to come from somewhere and that is why we are sometimes required to feed the soil with already biologically-active decomposed organic matter rich in beneficial microbes – the compost

如果你不通过土壤倒置危害蚯蚓、微生物和其他土壤生物,它们可以完成创造和维持松软肥沃土壤所需的大部分耕作。 然而,如果你的土壤是生物性死亡,这些微生物必须来自某个地方,这就是为什么我们有时被要求用已经具有生物活性的富含有益微生物的分解有机物——堆肥——来喂养土壤

Good compost supplies both the organic matter for soil building and the fertilizer for the crops, and, most importantly, it’s packed with soil organisms that trigger biological activity. It inoculates your soil with microbes that will digest nutrients present in the soil and feed your plants.

好的堆肥不仅为土壤建造提供有机物质,也为农作物提供肥料,更重要的是,堆肥中充满了能够激发生物活性的土壤微生物。 它为你的土壤接种微生物,这些微生物能够消化土壤中的养分,并为你的植物提供养分。

Compost is the key ingredient for building and maintaining healthy soil. Because of its special characteristics, compost cannot simply be replaced with manure, natural fertilizers or green manure.If you’ve just moved to a new garden and want productivity, then compost will rapidly make your soils fertile.

堆肥是建立和维护健康土壤的关键成分。 由于堆肥的特殊性质,它不能简单地用粪肥、天然肥料或绿色施肥来代替。如果你刚搬到一个新的花园,想要提高生产力,那么堆肥将迅速使你的土壤变得肥沃。

Once you have your soil biology working for you, you need to feed it so it can feed your plants.There are a number of different ways to maintain soil organic matter in your annual garden. One of the easiest is using lawn grass clippings, leaves, straw or cover crops and, of course, compost.

一旦你的土壤生物为你工作,你需要喂养它,这样它就可以喂养你的植物。 在你的一年一度的花园里,有许多不同的方法来维持土壤的有机质。 最简单的方法之一是使用剪下的草坪草、树叶、稻草或覆盖作物,当然还有堆肥。

The mulch is then left on the surface to decompose. Adding this layer of organic matter and spreading it is, in effect, ‘composting in place’, where the garden beds become large composting areas. Then by the actions of earthworms, bacteria, fungi and insects, the organic matter is slowly broken down and released into the soil, providing nutrients to the garden.

然后把覆盖物留在表面分解。 添加这一层有机物质并将其扩散,实际上就是“适当地进行堆肥” ,在这里,花园的床变成了大型的堆肥区。 然后在蚯蚓、细菌、真菌和昆虫的作用下,这些有机物质慢慢分解并释放到土壤中,为花园提供养分。

While all this sounds great if you are running a market garden operation, this kind of practice is restrictive and somewhat impractical. Here is what JM Fortier in his book The Market Gardener has to say: “Based on my experience, direct seeding into crop residues, mulch, or crimped down cover crops is not straightforward, causing unpredictable germination rates – a nightmare for any commercial grower.” Something we should bear in mind.

如果你正在经营一个菜园市场,那么所有这些听起来都很棒,但这种做法是有限制的,而且有点不切实际。 以下是 JM Fortier 在他的书《市场园丁》中所说的: “根据我的经验,直接在作物残留物、覆盖物或压实覆盖作物上播种并不简单,导致不可预测的发芽率——对任何商业种植者来说都是一场噩梦。” 有些事情我们应该记住。

With crop rotation you can actually mimic the diversity of annual plants growing on a bare field. Differing root systems among plants penetrate the soil to different depths, improving its structure.
By ensuring crop diversity and alternating crops you allow soil to keep producing without being drained of its nutrients, while simultaneously eliminating a number of diseases and harmful insects that often occur when one species is continuously cropped.

通过轮作,你实际上可以模拟裸地上一年生植物的多样性。 不同植物的不同根系可以渗透到土壤的不同深度,从而改善土壤的结构。通过确保作物的多样性和交替种植作物,你可以让土壤继续生产而不会流失养分,同时消除一些疾病和有害昆虫,这些疾病和昆虫经常发生在一个物种连续种植的时候。

2. Grasslands – Pasture/Cropland 图2。 草地-牧场 / 农地

Bishopp-Farm

As we move in succession the perennial grasses are slowly taking over. Big herbivores are roaming in herds feeding off these grasses, trampling them down and fertilizing the soils. Over long periods of time organic matter simply built up and now we have fungi and mycelium with bacteria, equally represented.

随着我们一个接一个地移动,多年生禾本科植物正在慢慢地取而代之。 大型食草动物正在成群结队地游荡,以这些草为食,践踏它们,给土壤施肥。 经过很长一段时间,有机物质简单地堆积起来,现在我们有真菌和菌丝体和细菌,同样代表。

Unless you need to repair the compacted soil, poor drainage or have to do some initial tillage to sow the perennial cover, you should aim for no till, no compaction and lowest possible mechanical disturbance. Make your tillage minimal.

除非你需要修复压实的土壤,排水不良或者需要做一些初期耕作来播种常年覆盖物,你的目标应该是免耕,不压实和最低可能的机械干扰。 使你的耕作最小化。

Here the goal is the same as with an annual garden, enabling the biological tillage but also taking advantage of the mycorrhizal fungi which form symbiotic relationships with the roots, extending the plant’s root network**.** They also prevent pathogens, improve water use efficiency and the efficiency of absorbing other nutrients.

这里的目标和一年一度的花园一样,既可以进行生物耕作,也可以利用与根部形成共生关系的菌根真菌,扩展植物的根系网络。 它们还可以防止病原体,提高水分利用效率和其他营养物质的吸收效率。

If we look at perennial native ranges we can see they are permanently covered**.** So the first step to rebuilding soil structure and health of a grassland is to get it under perennial cover. This acts like armor for the soil. Bare soil is detrimental to its health, you only find bare soil in catastrophic events or where humans have imposed their will upon it.

如果我们观察多年生的原生植被,我们可以看到它们被永久地覆盖着。 因此,重建草地土壤结构和健康的第一步就是将其置于常年覆盖之下。 这就像是土壤的盔甲。 裸露的土壤对它的健康是有害的,你只能在灾难性事件或人类强加于它的意志的地方找到裸露的土壤。

Cover crops are planted specifically to build and hold soil and to smother weeds. They range from long-growing perennials to short-term green manures but the aim is the same: a solid cover of plants. Their leaves will protect the soil from hammering rains and eventually their residue carpets the surface with nutritious, humus-building matter.

覆盖作物是专门用来建造和保持土壤和抑制杂草的。 它们从长期生长的多年生植物到短期的绿色肥料,但目标是一样的: 植物的坚实覆盖。 它们的叶子将保护土壤免受锤击雨水的伤害,最终它们的残留物将富含营养的、腐殖质的物质覆盖在土壤表面。

Once again, if you look at native perennial ecosystems we can see diversity. Rather than resorting to one or two species of cover crops they should be seeded as multi-species combinations, through doing so, you are mimicking what nature does. You optimize solar energy collection as different plants have different shaped leaves. Because the roots penetrate to varying depths the mycorrhizal fungi are able to deliver moisture and nutrients from the different areas of the soil profile.

再一次,如果你观察当地的多年生生态系统,我们可以看到多样性。 与其采用一种或两种覆盖作物,不如将它们作为多种组合播种,通过这样做,你是在模仿大自然的作用。 你优化太阳能收集,因为不同的植物有不同形状的叶子。 由于根系向不同深度渗透,菌根真菌能够从土壤剖面的不同区域输送水分和养分。

You can design your cover crops to address whatever specific concerns you may wish: whether it’s protection of the soil as living mulches, adding organic matter as green manure, boosting fertility with N fixing legumes or dealing with compaction. Even if you are using your grassland for growing cash crops, you can maximize your profits by mixing in cover crops. Cover crops can be sown before, with, or after the cash crop. This way you have something growing all the time.

你可以设计你的覆盖作物来解决任何你想要解决的具体问题: 不管是保护土壤作为活的覆盖物,添加有机物作为绿肥,提高氮固定豆类的肥力,还是处理压实。 即使你用你的草地种植经济作物,你也可以通过混种覆盖作物来最大化你的利润。 覆盖作物可以在经济作物播种前、播种期间或播种后播种。 通过这种方式,你可以一直保持植物的生长。

In nature soils are formed in conjunction with herbivores. In this case through large herds of herbivores moving across the planes, but also by other local wildlife; rabbits, grasshoppers, and other insects. All of them are taking this forage, the biomass, and endlessly recycling it. Animals are an integral part of a healthy ecosystem. But how can they help you to build healthy soil?

在自然界中,土壤是与食草动物共同形成的。 在这种情况下,通过大量的食草动物穿过飞机,但也通过其他当地的野生动物,兔子,蚱蜢,和其他昆虫。 他们所有人都在采集这些饲料,这些生物质,并不断地循环利用它们。 动物是健康生态系统不可分割的一部分。 但是他们如何帮助你建立健康的土壤呢?

A prime example of building soil with big herbivores is the holistic planned grazing practice conducted by Allan Savory and others like Greg Judy. They use high-density animal herds that graze a paddock for one day before being moved to the next paddock. Joel Salatin has a similar technique, he has a grazing plan with a high-density herd impact followed by ample recovery time.

用大型食草动物建造土壤的一个典型例子是艾伦 · 萨沃里和其他像格雷格 · 朱迪一样的人进行的整体计划放牧实践。 他们使用高密度的动物群,在牧场放牧一天,然后被转移到下一个牧场。 乔尔 · 萨拉丁有一个类似的技术,他有一个放牧计划,具有高密度的牧群影响,随后有充足的恢复时间。

The goal is for animals to consume a third of the grass in the paddock and trample the rest into the soil to feed earthworms and soil microbes, thus replicating the natural herds of large grazers that coevolved with grasses.

他们的目标是让动物吃掉围场里三分之一的草,然后把剩下的践踏到土壤里去喂蚯蚓和土壤微生物,这样就可以复制与草共同进化的自然大群食草动物。

3. Food Forests/Permaculture Orchards 图3。 食用林 / 永续经营果园

Martin Crawford's garden 150dpi

With time every ecosystem will eventually end up forest-like. In a forest, organic matter in the form of fallen leaves, twigs and branches and dying plants, are all deposited on the forest floor, where they are decomposed into rich humus by the action of fungi and other organisms. Fungal fabrics, mycelium run through the top few inches and act as interfaces between plant roots and nutrients, bringing distant nutrients and moisture to the host plant, extending the absorption zone well beyond the root structure. No tree could reach maturity without this symbiotic relationship.

随着时间的推移,每个生态系统最终都会变得像森林一样。 在森林中,落叶、树枝和垂死的植物等有机物质都沉积在森林地表,在真菌和其他生物的作用下,它们在那里分解成丰富的腐殖质。 真菌纤维---- 菌丝体穿过顶端几英寸,作为植物根系和营养物质之间的界面,给寄主植物带来远距离的营养和水分,使吸收区远远超出根系结构。 没有这种共生关系,任何一棵树都不可能成熟。

Food forests are actually younger versions of the mature forests, in his book Creating Forest Gardens Martin Crawford explains- “A food forest is a forest modelled on the structure of young natural woodland and it often contains nitrogen-fixing trees and shrubs, which are pioneer species, establishing quickly and improving soil and environmental conditions for other trees to follow.”

食用林实际上是成熟森林的年轻版本,马丁 · 克劳福德在他的书《创造森林花园》中解释道: “食用林是模仿天然幼林结构的森林,通常含有固氮树木和灌木,这些是先锋物种,迅速建立并改善土壤和环境条件,以便其他树木效仿。”

If you are starting from scratch let’s see how you can transform bare land to a food forest.

如果你从零开始,让我们看看如何将裸露的土地变成食物森林。

Preparing the soil prior to planting offers certain advantages. A year of cover cropping and woody mulching not only offers a chance to build organic matter and correct fertility imbalances but, most importantly, accelerates fungal dominance. Fruit trees generally prefer high-quality soil and that’s why it is particularly important to achieve a good layer of humus and to try to use as much biomass as possible on the soil.

种植前整理土壤有一定的好处。 一年的覆盖作物和木本覆盖不仅提供了一个机会,以建立有机物质和纠正生育不平衡,但最重要的是,加速真菌的主导地位。 果树通常喜欢高质量的土壤,这就是为什么获得一个良好的腐殖质层和尽可能多的使用生物量在土壤上是特别重要的。

Following the initial tillage or sheet mulching, existing grasses will generally be ready for cover crops, preferably red or crimson clover as these two nitrogen-fixing legumes have a stronger affinity for mycorrhizal fungi. Other Legumes and dynamic accumulator plants are also acceptable, and all of these can be even oversown into existing grasses.

在最初的耕作或薄片覆盖之后,现有的禾本科植物通常可以覆盖作物,最好是红三叶或红三叶,因为这两种固氮豆类对菌根真菌有更强的亲和力。 其他豆科植物和动态蓄电池植物也是可以接受的,所有这些甚至可以超播入现有的草。

Food Forest soils ideally contain a fungal presence ten times higher than that of bacteria. If you’re starting with bare field and there are no fungi present you can encourage mycorrhizal associations through inoculation with fungi. Here is what Michael Crawford recommends in his book Creating Forest Gardens:

食物森林的土壤理想地含有比细菌高十倍的真菌。 如果你从裸地开始,没有真菌存在,你可以通过接种真菌来促进菌根的结合。 以下是迈克尔·克劳福德在他的书《创造森林花园》中的建议:

Compost, deciduous wood chips, and other woody material can be added on top of the green manure crops. The woody material is what drives the fungal dominance you want for a healthy food forest. The goal, plain and simple, is to create what Michael Phillips in Holistic Orchard calls fungal duff – the litter layer where mineralization and humification take place through the action of fungi.

堆肥,落叶木片,和其他木质材料可以添加到绿肥作物的顶部。 木质材料是驱动真菌的主导地位,你想要一个健康的食物森林。 我们的目标,简单明了,就是要创造出迈克尔 · 菲利普斯在《整体果园》一书中所说的真菌灰尘——一层通过真菌的作用而发生矿化和腐殖化作用的落叶层。

Mulching with wood chips and chopping and dropping woody plant material on the ground helps mycorrhizae thrive, and it’s this fungal connection that provides the balanced nutrition necessary for a tree to better withstand disease.

在地面上覆盖木屑,砍伐和丢弃木本植物材料有助于菌根生长,正是这种真菌的联系为树木提供了更好抵御疾病所必需的营养平衡。

The self-fertilising nature of the food forest comes from the use of nitrogen-fixing plants along with other plants like comfrey that are particularly good at raising nutrients from the subsoil. Through their use efficient nutrient cycling develops in a forest-like system, maximizing fertility for other plants to grow.

食物森林的自我施肥性质来自于使用固氮植物和其他植物,如聚合草,它们特别擅长从地下土壤中提取养分。 通过它们的使用,有效的养分循环在类似森林的系统中发展起来,使其他植物的生长能力最大化。

Nitrogen fixers are extremely useful fertility providers in a food forest. Techniques like ‘chop and drop’ mulches, coppicing and pollarding from these plants in particular can release the nutrients they have extracted over time from the earth or air. Simply having them shed leaves on the ground can improve fertility. There are many nitrogen fixing plants at each level of the food forest and I recommend reading Martin Crawford’s book for a comprehensive list.

在食物森林中,固氮剂是极其有用的肥力提供者。 特别是从这些植物身上砍掉覆盖物、采伐和截枝等技术,可以释放它们长期以来从土壤或空气中吸收的养分。 简单地让它们在地上落叶可以提高肥力。 有许多固氮植物在每个水平的食物森林和我建议阅读马丁克劳福德的书为一个全面的清单。

Want to improve your soil the permaculture way? Skip the guesswork and use this FREE Checklist as your reference. 想改善土壤的永续栽培方式? 跳过猜测,使用这个免费的清单作为你的参考

Conclusions

结论

With each of the scenarios outlined above you are striving for the highest percent of organic matter in your soil and providing habitats for a high diversity of soil food web organisms. In an annual garden this would be geared more towards bacteria and in a forest garden more towards mycorrhizal fungi.

随着上述每一个场景的概述,你正在为你的土壤中最高百分比的有机物质而奋斗,并为土壤食物网生物的高度多样性提供栖息地。 在一个一年一度的花园里,这将更适合细菌,在一个森林花园里,这将更适合菌根真菌。

The easiest way to know what your plants need is to ask yourself: “Where did the plant grow natively, Field or Forest?

要想知道你的植物需要什么,最简单的方法就是问问自己: “这种植物原生生长在哪里,田野还是森林? ”?

Depending on the type of system you wish to achieve, bring animals into the system in any way you can. They help with organic matter and nutrient cycling: earthworms, herbivores, poultry, all are integral to system health.

根据你希望实现的系统类型,以任何你能做到的方式将动物带入系统。 它们有助于有机物质和营养循环: 蚯蚓,食草动物,家禽,所有这些都是系统健康的组成部分。

And always remember nature is our greatest teacher, working in harmony with nature is always the best way to proceed, so whatever you’re planning to do always ask yourself: “What would nature do, how would this system I’m trying to set-up look naturally? And then adapt it to your circumstances.

永远记住,自然是我们最好的老师,与自然和谐共处永远是最好的方式,所以无论你计划做什么,都要问自己: “自然会做什么,我试图建立的这个系统会自然地看起来怎么样? ”? 然后根据你的情况调整它。

Hope this helps in your endeavors, let me know what you think in the comments!

希望这对你的努力有所帮助,请在评论中告诉我你的想法!

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