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|Akira Miyawaki 作者: Akira Miyawaki|
|Native name本地名称||宮脇 昭 Wakizashi Palace|
|Born 出生||29 January 1928 1928年1月29日 (age 91) (91岁)|
|Alma mater母校||Hiroshima University 广岛大学|
|Awards 奖项||Asahi Prize 朝日奖 (1990) Blue Planet Prize 蓝色星球奖(2006) (2006年)|
Akira Miyawaki (宮脇 昭 Miyawaki Akira, born 29 January 1928) is a Japanese botanist and expert in plant ecology, specializing in seeds and the study of natural forests. He is active worldwide as a specialist in the restoration of natural vegetation on degraded land. Since 1993, he has been Professor Emeritus at Yokohama National University and Director of the Japanese Center for International Studies in Ecology. He received the Blue Planet Prize in 2006.
日本植物学家和植物生态学专家，专门从事种子和天然森林的研究。 作为退化土地上自然植被恢复方面的专家，他活跃于世界各地。 自1993年以来，他一直担任名誉教授的横滨国立大学和日本国际生态研究中心主任。 他在2006年获得了蓝色星球奖。 
Since the 1970s, Akira Miyawaki has advocated the value of natural forests and the urgent need to restore them. He considers that the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro failed to protect native forests and that (except very locally) they continue to decline or deteriorate.
自20世纪70年代以来，宫胁明一直倡导天然森林的价值和恢复它们的迫切需要。 他认为，1992年在里约热内卢举行的地球问题首脑会议未能保护本地森林，而且(除了非常局部地区以外)这些森林继续减少或恶化。 [需要引证]
Trees around a shinto shrine in
Sasayama, Hyogo 兵库县，Sasayama
Miyawaki observed the trees which traditionally grew around temples, shrines, and cemeteries in Japan, such as Japanese Blue Oak, Castanopsis cuspidata, Bamboo-leaf Oak, Japanese Chestnut trees, and Machilus tunbergii (a tree from the laurel family). He showed that they were native species, relics of the primary forest. At the same time, he noted that trees such as Japanese Cedar, Cypress and Larch Pine, supposedly native to Japan, had in fact been introduced into Japan over centuries by foresters in order to produce timber. Miyawaki was led to reflect on the consequences of the change in composition and sometimes structure of the majority of Japanese forests, which are now far away from their original natural vegetation.
宫胁观察了一些传统上生长在日本寺庙、神殿和墓地周围的树木，例如日本蓝橡树、东方栲树、竹叶橡树、日本栗和东伯吉楠(属于月桂科的一种树)。 他证明它们是原生物种，是原始森林的遗迹。 与此同时，他指出，日本雪松、柏树和 Larch Pine 这些原产于日本的树木，实际上是几个世纪以来由林务人员引入日本来生产木材的。 引导宫胁思考日本大多数森林的组成和有时的结构变化的后果，这些森林现在已经远离其原始的自然植被。 
He calculated that only 0.06% of contemporary Japanese forests were indigenous forests. Contemporary forests, created according to forestry principles, are not in his view the most resilient nor the best suited vegetation for the geobioclimatic conditions in Japan, neither are they the most suited to address climate change.
他计算出当代日本森林中只有0.06% 是本土森林。 当代森林，根据林业原则创建，在他看来，不是最具复原力的，也不是最适合日本地区气候条件的植被，也不是最适合应对气候变化的。
Referring to potential natural vegetation (PNV) (a concept he studied in Germany), he developed, tested and refined a method of ecological engineering today known as the "Miyawaki method" to restore native forests from seeds of native trees on very degraded soils which were deforested and without humus. Using ecological theories and the results of his experiments, he quickly and successfully restored, sometimes over large areas, protective forests (disaster-prevention, environment-conservation and water-source-protection forests) at over 1,300 sites in Japan and various tropical countries, in particular in Pacific area Restoration of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests in the Pacific Region, in the form of shelterbelts, woodlands and woodlots, including urban, port and industrial areas.
关于潜在的自然植被(PNV)(他在德国研究的一个概念) ，他开发、测试和改进了一种今天称为"Miyawaki 方法"的生态工程方法，以便在被砍伐和没有腐殖质的严重退化土壤上从本地树木的种子中恢复本地森林。 他运用生态学理论和实验结果，在日本和各热带国家，特别是太平洋地区，以防护林带、林地和林地(包括城市、港口和工业区)的形式，迅速而成功地恢复了1,300多个地点的防护林(防灾、环境保护和水源保护林)。
Although most experts believe that rapid restoration of a forest is impossible or very difficult on a laterized and desertified soil following the destruction of rainforest, Miyawaki showed that rapid restoration of forest cover and restoration of soil was possible by using a judicious choice of pioneer and secondary indigenous species, densely planted and mycorrhized.
Studying local plant ecology, he uses the species that have key roles and complementary roles in the normal tree community. These species are accompanied by a variety of accompanying species (40 to 60 types of plants or more in the tropics) for "support".
Miyawaki is primarily a botanist specialized in plant ecology and seeds. He wrote a thesis on this subject in the Department of Biology at the University of Hiroshima. He then conducted field research in various parts of Japan, while working as a research assistant at the Yokohama National University, continuing his studies at the University of Tokyo.
宫胁基本上是一个植物学家，专门研究植物生态学和种子。 他在广岛大学生物系写了一篇关于这个主题的论文。 然后他在日本各地进行实地研究，同时在横滨国立大学担任研究助理，继续在东京大学学习。 [需要引证]
Reinhold Tuexen (1899-1980), who headed the Federal Institute for Vegetation Mapping, invited him to Germany. Miyawaki then worked with him on the concept of "potential natural vegetation" (vegetation which would occur naturally in the absence of human intervention), from 1956 to 1958.
联邦植被测绘研究所所长 Reinhold Tuexen (1899-1980)邀请他访问德国。 Miyawaki 随后在1956年至1958年期间与他一起研究"潜在的自然植被"(在没有人类干预的情况下自然生长的植被)的概念。
Returning to Japan in 1960, he applied the methods of mapping potential natural vegetation (PNV). He found relics of ancient forests still present in the vicinity of temples and shrines (surrounding Chinju-no-mori sacred groves). Inventorying over 10,000 sites throughout Japan, he was able to identify this potential flora affected by different types of human activity, including in mountainous areas, river banks, rural villages and urban areas.
1960年回到日本后，他应用潜在自然植被制图方法(PNV)。 他发现在寺庙和神殿(周围的 Chinju-no-mori 神圣的小树林)附近仍然存在着古代森林的遗迹。 通过对日本全国10000多个地点的调查，他确定了受不同类型人类活动影响的潜在植物区系，包括山区、河岸、乡村和城市地区。
From these data, he created maps of existing vegetation and maps of potential natural vegetation. His maps are still used as a basis for scientific research and impact studies, and as an effective tool for land use, diagnosis and for mapping biological corridors. These maps of potential natural vegetation serve as a model to restore degraded habitats and native plant environment.
根据这些数据，他绘制了现有植被的地图和潜在自然植被的地图。 他的地图仍然被用作科学研究和影响研究的基础，也是土地利用、诊断和绘制生物走廊地图的有效工具。 这些潜在的自然植被地图可以作为恢复退化的生境和原生植物环境的模型。 [需要引证]
Over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1990, in cooperation with laboratories of phytoecology and universities, Miyawaki led botanical and phytosociological inventories to map vegetation throughout Japan, compiled into a ten-volume book with more than 6,000 pages of comment.
Miyawaki showed that natural Japanese temperate forest should be mainly composed of deciduous trees – while in practice conifers often dominate. Deciduous trees are still present around tombs and temples, where they have been protected from exploitation for religious and cultural reasons.
The more his research progressed, the more he found that the current forest vegetation of Japan (24.1 million hectares, or 3.5 billion cubic meters of timber on more than 64% of the country) had moved away from potential natural vegetation, due to the introduction of alien species by man. He noted that conifers (still considered in the 1970s as indigenous by many Japanese, including botanists), which became dominant in many forests, are actually an introduced species, and were only naturally present at high altitudes and in extreme environments (such as mountain ridges and steep slopes). They have for centuries been planted there to produce timber faster, and they acclimated. This led Miyawaki to think about forest other than as a source of greenery, recreation or timber. He became interested in the functions of allelopathy and complementarity of species in naturally wooded areas.
他的研究取得的进展越多，他发现日本目前的森林植被(2410万公顷，或35亿立方米的木材，超过64% 的国家)已经远离潜在的自然植被，由于外来物种的引入。 他指出，在许多森林中占主导地位的针叶树(在1970年代仍被包括植物学家在内的许多日本人视为土著)实际上是一种引进的物种，只在高海拔和极端环境(如山脊和陡坡)中自然存在。 几个世纪以来，为了更快地生产木材，人们一直在那里种植它们，而且它们也适应了水土。 这使宫胁开始考虑森林，而不是作为绿化、休闲或木材的来源。 他对自然林区物种间的化感作用和互补作用产生了兴趣。
His first field trials have shown that planted forests, which in composition and structure were closer to what would exist in the absence of human activity, grew quickly and generally showed very good ecological resilience.
Miyawaki gradually formed a large seed bank (more than 10 million seeds have been identified and classified, according to their geographical origin and soil). They are mostly remnants of natural forests preserved for generations around temples and cemeteries because of the traditional belief in Chinju-no-mori (literally "forests where the gods dwell"; it was considered unlucky to interfere with these forests). These places have allowed the preservation of thousands of small reserves of native species and tree genes descending from prehistoric forests.
Miyawaki 逐渐形成了一个大型的种子库(根据其地理起源和土壤，已经鉴定和分类了1000多万种子)。 它们大多是寺庙和墓地周围世代保存下来的天然森林的遗迹，因为传统上信仰钦州-不-森(字面意思是"神居住的森林"; 人们认为干涉这些森林是不吉利的)。 这些地方保存了数以千计来自史前森林的本地物种和树木基因的小型保护区。
Using the principles of this tradition, he proposed a plan to restore native forests for environmental protection, as a water retention resource and to protect against natural hazards. His proposals were not initially met with positive feedback, but in the early 1970s, Nippon Steel Corporation, who wanted to plant forests on embankments around its steelworks at Oita, became interested in his work after the death of previous conventional plantations and entrusted him with a first operation.
利用这一传统的原则，他提出了一项计划，恢复天然森林以保护环境，作为一种保水资源，并防止自然灾害。 他的提议最初并没有得到积极的反馈，但在20世纪70年代初，希望在 Oita 钢铁厂周围的堤防上种植森林的新日本制铁对他的工作产生了兴趣，并委托他进行第一次经营。 [需要引证]
Miyawaki identified the potential natural vegetation of the area, studying the forests surrounding two nearby tombs (Usa and Yusuhara). He chose various species of trees that he tested on the substrate to be afforested. He then created a nursery where plants were mixed and then planted on the site, where today lives a forest composed exclusively of native species. The steel corporation was so pleased with the results that in the 18 years since, it has planted forests with this method at sites of its steel mills in Nagoya, Sakai, Kamaishi, Futtu, Hikari, Muroran, and Yawata.
Miyawaki 通过研究附近两座坟墓(美国和梼原)周围的森林，确定了该地区潜在的自然植被。 他选择了各种各样的树种，在基质上进行了试验，以便造林。 然后他创造了一个苗圃，在那里植物被混合，然后种植在这个地方，今天生活的森林完全由当地物种组成。 钢铁公司对这一结果非常满意，在过去的18年里，它已经在名古屋、境、釜石、 Futtu、光里、室兰和八幡的钢铁厂用这种方法种植了森林。 [需要引证]
Since then, Miyawaki and his colleagues and partners have successfully covered more than 1300 sites with multilayered protective forests, composed entirely of native species. The method has been tested successfully in almost all of Japan, sometimes on difficult substrates, including plantations to mitigate the effects of tsunamis on the coast, or typhoons in the port of Yokohama, wastelands, artificial islands, fixing crumbling slopes after road construction, and creating a forest on a cliff freshly cut with dynamite to construct the Monju Nuclear Power Plant in Fukui Prefecture.
从那时起，宫胁和他的同事及合作伙伴已经成功地在1300多个地点建立了完全由当地物种组成的多层次保护林。 这种方法在日本几乎所有地区都得到了成功的测试，有时是在困难的基质上，包括在海岸上建造种植园以减轻海啸的影响，或者在横滨港、荒地、人工岛上建造台风，在修建完道路后修复破碎的斜坡，在刚刚修剪过的悬崖上用炸药建造文殊(核反应炉)福井县。 [需要引证]
Miyawaki has instructed people on planting in over 1,700 areas around the world, including over 1,400 sites in Japan as well as in Borneo, Amazonia and China. He has been involved in the planting of over 40 million native trees, together with companies and citizens, to contribute to forest regeneration. Since 1978, Miyawaki has contributed to vegetation surveys in Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia.
宫胁已经指导人们在全世界1700多个地区进行种植，包括在日本、婆罗洲、阿马佐尼亚和中国的1400多个地点。 他与公司和市民一起参与种植了4000多万棵土生土长的树木，为森林再生做出了贡献。 自1978年以来，宫胁一郎为泰国、印度尼西亚和马来西亚的植被调查做出了贡献。 [需要引证]
From 1990, Miyawaki worked on restoring severely degraded tropical forests, including that of Bintulu (Sarawak, Malaysia). Thanks to sponsors, a seed bank of 201 tree species (mainly Dipterocarpaceae) from potential natural vegetation produced 600,000 seedlings in pots which were annually planted on site, under various conditions. In 2005, the surviving plants from 1991 (a major natural selection takes place, as is desired in the method) measured over 20 meters in height (growth of more than 1 metre per year) and the sedimentary facies of a young rainforest was reconstituting, protecting the soil, while fauna also was gradually reappearing.
从1990年起，宫胁致力于恢复严重退化的热带森林，包括民都鲁(沙捞越)的森林。 在赞助商的帮助下，一个由201个树种(主要是龙脑香科)组成的种子库从潜在的自然植被中培育出了600,000棵树苗，这些树苗每年都会在不同的条件下栽种在盆中。 2005年，对1991年幸存下来的植物进行了高度超过20米(每年生长超过1米)的测量(如方法所希望的那样，这是一次重大的自然选择) ，并对一个年轻的雨林的沉积相进行了重组，保护了土壤，同时动物也逐渐重新出现。
In 2000, the Miyawaki method was tested for the first time in a Mediterranean ecosystem in Sardinia (Italy), on an area where traditional reforestation methods had failed. The original method was adapted while maintaining its theoretical principles. Results obtained 2 and 11 years after planting were positive: plant biodiversity appears very high, and the new coenosis was able to evolve without further operative support.
2000年，Miyawaki 方法首次在撒丁岛(意大利)的地中海生态系统中进行测试，该地区传统的造林方法已经失败。 在保持其理论原则的同时，对原有的方法进行了修改。 种植后2年和11年取得的结果是积极的: 植物生物多样性显示非常高，新的群落能够进化而不需要进一步的操作支持。 
In 2013, the Miyawaki Method of Environment Forest Plantation was applied in the Barapani Industrial Area, Umiam, North East India.
2013年，Miyawaki 环境森林种植法在 Umiam 的 Barapani 工业区得到了应用。 
In 2014, SayTrees switched to this method and using this method ever since, Bangalore, India.
In 2018, the Miyawaki Method was used also in Paris, by the boomforest.org team to restore a 400 m2 area near Porte de Montreuil, in the Boulevard Périphérique a controlled-access dual-carriageway ring road around the French Capital.
2018年，Miyawaki 方法在巴黎也得到了应用，由 boomforest.org 团队修复了蒙特勒伊门附近的一个400平方米的区域，这个区域位于法国首都附近的一条双车道环形公路环城大道。 
In 2019, GreenYatra planted around 3000 trees creating first Miyawaki of Mumbai city at the CRWC, Railway Land, Jogeshwari Mumbai. GreenYatra would plant 10,00,000 more trees switching to this method across India within 1 year.
2019年，GreenYatra 在 CRWC，Railway Land，Jogeshwari Mumbai 种植了大约3000棵树，创造了孟买市的第一个 Miyawaki。 在一年之内，GreenYatra 将在印度各地种植10,000,000多棵树来采用这种方法。
On 5 June-2019, World Environment Day, IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) Ropar made the sacred forest of 550 trees of 40 native trees with this technique in a plot of 160 square metre. The forest was named after Guru Nanak Dev, the founder of Sikh religion.
2019年6月5日，世界环境日，印度理工学院(IIT) Ropar 使用这项技术在一块160平方米的土地上种植了40棵土生土长的550棵树。 这片森林是以锡克教创始人 Guru Nanak Dev 的名字命名的。
The Miyawaki method of reconstitution of "indigenous forests by indigenous trees" produces a rich, dense and efficient protective pioneer forest in 20 to 30 years, where natural succession would need 200 years in temperate Japan and 300 to 500 years in the tropics. Success requires compliance with the following phases:
Miyawaki 采用"本土树木重建本土森林"的方法，在20至30年内生产出丰富、密集和高效的保护性先锋森林，在日本温带地区，自然演替需要200年，在热带地区需要300至500年。 成功需要遵守以下阶段:
Rigorous initial site survey and research of potential natural vegetation.
Identification and collecting of a large number of various native seeds, locally or nearby and in a comparable geoclimatic context. 鉴定和收集大量当地或附近以及类似地球气候背景下的各种本地种子
Germination in a nursery (which requires a technique for some species, for example, those that germinate only after passing through the digestive tract of a certain animal, or that need a particular symbiotic fungus, or a cold induced dorming phase, etc.).
苗圃中的萌发(对某些物种来说需要一种技术，例如，那些只有通过某种动物的消化道才能萌发的，或者那些需要特殊技术的共生真菌, 或冷诱导睡眠期 等)
Preparation of the substrate if it is very degraded (addition of organic matter/mulch (for example with 3–4 kg of rice straw per square metre, to replace the protection afforded by surface humus and leaf litter) and (in areas with heavy or torrential rainfall) planting mounds for tap-root species that require a well-drained soil surface. Hill slopes can be planted with more ubiquitous surface roots species (cedar, Japanese cypress, pine, etc.)
基质的制备，如果它是容易降解(加入有机物 /覆盖物 (例如每平方米3-4公斤稻草，以取代地表腐殖质和落叶层） 及 (在有大雨或暴雨的地区) 在山丘种植主根类 的需要排水良好的土壤表面的物种。 山坡上可以种植更多的表面根系物种(雪松、日本扁柏、松树等等)。
Plantation respecting biodiversity inspired by the model of the natural forest. Miyawaki implements and recommends unusually dense plantation of very young seedlings (but with an already mature root system : with symbiotic bacteria and fungi present), for example 30 cm oaks from acorns, raised in a nursery over two years. Density aims at stirring competition between species and the onset of phytosociological relations close to what would happen in nature (30 to 50 plants per square metre in the temperate zone, up to 500 or even 1000 seedlings per square metre in Borneo);
关于种植生物多样性 的灵感来自于天然森林的模型。 宫胁实施和建议非常密集的种植非常年轻的幼苗(但有一个已经成熟的根系: 共生细菌和真菌）, 例如30厘米长的橡子橡树，在苗圃培育超过两年。 密度的目的在于引发物种之间的 竞争 ，植物群落关系 接近自然界的情况(温带地区每平方米30至50株，婆罗洲地区每平方米500甚至1000株) ;
Plantations randomly distributed in space in the way plants are distributed in a clearing or at the edge of the natural forest, not in rows or staggered (meeting on this point with the Prosilva methods in Europe).
The results show that this method, if properly applied, quickly produces a multi-layered forest and according to him, a soil with a microbial and acaricomposition quickly approaching that of a normal primary forest. He has published dozens of books, treatises, and articles on his researches and results.
According to the classical theory of succession initiated by Clements in the U.S., it should need 150 to 200 years for a young native forest with a multi-layered community to restore itself on bare soil in Japan, and it takes 300–500 years or more in the tropics of Southeast Asia.
Miyawaki seeks to accelerate the process of ecological healing by imitating as much as possible the normal composition of the primary forest in each context. He expects to get a restored temperate forest, whose facies and structure (distinct genetics, humus, and sections of old or dead wood) strongly resemble the native forest, in 20 to 30 years.
Miyawaki 试图通过尽可能多地模仿每种情况下原始森林的正常组成来加速生态愈合的进程。 他希望在20到30年内，恢复温带森林，其相和结构(明显的遗传基因，腐殖质，以及部分古老或枯死的木材)与原始森林非常相似。
Miyawaki has extensively tested the method in:
In each case, he was able to quickly restore a dense canopy reminiscent of the native forest.
In 1998, Miyawaki piloted a project of reconstruction of a forest dominated by the Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) along the Great Wall of China, gathering 4000 people to plant 400,000 trees, with the support of the Aeon Environment Foundation and the city of Beijing. The first trees planted by groups of Chinese and Japanese, on areas where the forest had long since gone, had grown over 3 m high in 2004 and - except for one part - continued to thrive in 2007.
1998年，Miyawaki 在永旺环境基金会和北京市的支持下，试行了一个中国长城沿线以蒙古栎为主的森林重建项目，聚集了4000人，种植了40万棵树。 2004年，中国人和日本人在森林早已消失的地区种植的第一批树木已超过3米高，除了一部分树木之外，其余树木在2007年继续茁壮成长。
Miyawaki also contributes to the massive reforestation in China by Government and Chinese citizens, no longer seeking to plant commercial species for commercial or ornamental purpose only, but to restore the natural potential vegetation, including in Pudon (west coast district in the special economic zone of Shanghai), Tsingtao (Qingdao), Ningbo, and Ma'anshan.
宫胁还为中国政府和中国公民大规模的植树造林做出了贡献，不再仅仅是为了商业或观赏目的而种植商业树种，而是为了恢复自然植被，包括 Pudon (上海经济特区的西海岸地区)、青岛(青岛)、宁波和马鞍山。
His method had already been presented as exemplary in a preparatory report for the 1992 Earth Summit, and in 1994 in the Biodiversity congress of the UNESCO in Paris. The method was also presented in 1991 at the Symposium of the University of Bonn, "restoration of tropical forest ecosystems " and at the congresses of the International Association for Ecology, the International Society for Vegetation Science, and the International Botanical Congress, including new aspects including the links between growth, natural habitat and estimated carbon fixation.
Curiously, despite more than 1,000 successful and sometimes spectacular experiences, the Western forestry or landscape world has rarely attempted to apply or even test the "Miyawaki method".
One of the few criticisms of the Miyawaki method (such as during the 1994 conference on Biodiversity at UNESCO in Paris) is that it produces a slightly monotonous visual appearance due to the first generation of trees all being the same age. This criticism is generally made on the basis of photographs taken after 10 or 20 years. But Miyawaki was among the first to emphasize the importance of not planting trees in a line or at equal distances (He would often have trees planted by the public or by young children to promote randomness). He wants to imitate the complexity and the semi- random nature of the plant community of native habitat. He promotes competition between plants, natural selection and plant associations. He believes that the faster-growing trees, the broken ones and those attacked by herbivores quickly produce new shoots resulting in low and intermediate strata.
Another criticism is the high cost of the first phase (nursery, soil preparation, dense planting), but the success rates are exceptionally good where conventional methods fail. The forests also require much less maintenance and attention. Some have lost most of their leaves in cyclones, but they resisted and helped protect the buildings where they were planted.