@zhongdao 2019-06-30T03:56:13.000000Z 字数 25754 阅读 2353

# Akira Miyawaki维基百科中英对照

未分类

Akira Miyawaki 作者: Akira Miyawaki
Native name本地名称 宮脇 昭 Wakizashi Palace
Born 出生 29 January 1928 1928年1月29日 (age 91) (91岁)
Nationality国籍 Japanese 日语
Alma mater母校 Hiroshima University 广岛大学
Occupation职业 Botanist 植物学家
Awards 奖项 Asahi Prize 朝日奖 (1990) Blue Planet Prize 蓝色星球奖(2006) (2006年)

Akira Miyawaki (宮脇 昭 Miyawaki Akira, born 29 January 1928) is a Japanese botanist and expert in plant ecology, specializing in seeds and the study of natural forests. He is active worldwide as a specialist in the restoration of natural vegetation on degraded land. Since 1993, he has been Professor Emeritus at Yokohama National University and Director of the Japanese Center for International Studies in Ecology. He received the Blue Planet Prize in 2006.[1][2]

## 1. Thesis 论文

Since the 1970s, Akira Miyawaki has advocated the value of natural forests and the urgent need to restore them.[3] He considers that the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro failed to protect native forests and that (except very locally) they continue to decline or deteriorate.[citation needed]

Trees around a shinto shrine in

Sasayama, Hyogo 兵库县，Sasayama

Miyawaki observed the trees which traditionally grew around temples, shrines, and cemeteries in Japan, such as Japanese Blue Oak, Castanopsis cuspidata, Bamboo-leaf Oak, Japanese Chestnut trees, and Machilus tunbergii (a tree from the laurel family). He showed that they were native species, relics of the primary forest. At the same time, he noted that trees such as Japanese Cedar, Cypress and Larch Pine, supposedly native to Japan, had in fact been introduced into Japan over centuries by foresters in order to produce timber. Miyawaki was led to reflect on the consequences of the change in composition and sometimes structure of the majority of Japanese forests, which are now far away from their original natural vegetation.[4]

He calculated that only 0.06% of contemporary Japanese forests were indigenous forests. Contemporary forests, created according to forestry principles, are not in his view the most resilient nor the best suited vegetation for the geobioclimatic conditions in Japan, neither are they the most suited to address climate change.

Referring to potential natural vegetation (PNV) (a concept he studied in Germany), he developed, tested and refined a method of ecological engineering today known as the "Miyawaki method" to restore native forests from seeds of native trees on very degraded soils which were deforested and without humus. Using ecological theories and the results of his experiments, he quickly and successfully restored, sometimes over large areas, protective forests (disaster-prevention, environment-conservation and water-source-protection forests) at over 1,300 sites in Japan and various tropical countries, in particular in Pacific area[5] Restoration of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests in the Pacific Region,[6] in the form of shelterbelts, woodlands and woodlots, including urban, port and industrial areas.

Although most experts believe that rapid restoration of a forest is impossible or very difficult on a laterized and desertified soil following the destruction of rainforest, Miyawaki showed that rapid restoration of forest cover and restoration of soil was possible by using a judicious choice of pioneer and secondary indigenous species, densely planted and mycorrhized.[citation needed]

Studying local plant ecology, he uses the species that have key roles and complementary roles in the normal tree community. These species are accompanied by a variety of accompanying species (40 to 60 types of plants or more in the tropics) for "support".

## 2. Curriculum 课程

Miyawaki is primarily a botanist specialized in plant ecology and seeds. He wrote a thesis on this subject in the Department of Biology at the University of Hiroshima. He then conducted field research in various parts of Japan, while working as a research assistant at the Yokohama National University, continuing his studies at the University of Tokyo.[citation needed]

Reinhold Tuexen (1899-1980), who headed the Federal Institute for Vegetation Mapping, invited him to Germany. Miyawaki then worked with him on the concept of "potential natural vegetation" (vegetation which would occur naturally in the absence of human intervention), from 1956 to 1958.

Returning to Japan in 1960, he applied the methods of mapping potential natural vegetation (PNV). He found relics of ancient forests still present in the vicinity of temples and shrines (surrounding Chinju-no-mori sacred groves). Inventorying over 10,000 sites throughout Japan, he was able to identify this potential flora affected by different types of human activity, including in mountainous areas, river banks, rural villages and urban areas.

1960年回到日本后，他应用潜在自然植被制图方法(PNV)。 他发现在寺庙和神殿(周围的 Chinju-no-mori 神圣的小树林)附近仍然存在着古代森林的遗迹。 通过对日本全国10000多个地点的调查，他确定了受不同类型人类活动影响的潜在植物区系，包括山区、河岸、乡村和城市地区。

From these data, he created maps of existing vegetation and maps of potential natural vegetation.[7] His maps are still used as a basis for scientific research and impact studies, and as an effective tool for land use, diagnosis and for mapping biological corridors. These maps of potential natural vegetation serve as a model to restore degraded habitats and native plant environment.[citation needed]

Over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1990, in cooperation with laboratories of phytoecology and universities, Miyawaki led botanical and phytosociological inventories to map vegetation throughout Japan, compiled into a ten-volume book with more than 6,000 pages of comment.[4]

## 3. Origin of the "Miyawaki method" "宫胁法"的由来

Miyawaki showed that natural Japanese temperate forest should be mainly composed of deciduous trees – while in practice conifers often dominate. Deciduous trees are still present around tombs and temples, where they have been protected from exploitation for religious and cultural reasons.

The more his research progressed, the more he found that the current forest vegetation of Japan (24.1 million hectares, or 3.5 billion cubic meters of timber on more than 64% of the country) had moved away from potential natural vegetation, due to the introduction of alien species by man. He noted that conifers (still considered in the 1970s as indigenous by many Japanese, including botanists), which became dominant in many forests, are actually an introduced species, and were only naturally present at high altitudes and in extreme environments (such as mountain ridges and steep slopes). They have for centuries been planted there to produce timber faster, and they acclimated. This led Miyawaki to think about forest other than as a source of greenery, recreation or timber. He became interested in the functions of allelopathy and complementarity of species in naturally wooded areas.

## 4. First experiences 第一次实验

His first field trials have shown that planted forests, which in composition and structure were closer to what would exist in the absence of human activity, grew quickly and generally showed very good ecological resilience.

Miyawaki gradually formed a large seed bank (more than 10 million seeds have been identified and classified, according to their geographical origin and soil). They are mostly remnants of natural forests preserved for generations around temples and cemeteries because of the traditional belief in Chinju-no-mori (literally "forests where the gods dwell"; it was considered unlucky to interfere with these forests). These places have allowed the preservation of thousands of small reserves of native species and tree genes descending from prehistoric forests.

Miyawaki 逐渐形成了一个大型的种子库(根据其地理起源和土壤，已经鉴定和分类了1000多万种子)。 它们大多是寺庙和墓地周围世代保存下来的天然森林的遗迹，因为传统上信仰钦州-不-森(字面意思是"神居住的森林"; 人们认为干涉这些森林是不吉利的)。 这些地方保存了数以千计来自史前森林的本地物种和树木基因的小型保护区。

Using the principles of this tradition, he proposed a plan to restore native forests for environmental protection, as a water retention resource and to protect against natural hazards. His proposals were not initially met with positive feedback, but in the early 1970s, Nippon Steel Corporation, who wanted to plant forests on embankments around its steelworks at Oita, became interested in his work after the death of previous conventional plantations and entrusted him with a first operation.[citation needed]

Miyawaki identified the potential natural vegetation of the area, studying the forests surrounding two nearby tombs (Usa and Yusuhara). He chose various species of trees that he tested on the substrate to be afforested. He then created a nursery where plants were mixed and then planted on the site, where today lives a forest composed exclusively of native species. The steel corporation was so pleased with the results that in the 18 years since, it has planted forests with this method at sites of its steel mills in Nagoya, Sakai, Kamaishi, Futtu, Hikari, Muroran, and Yawata.[citation needed]

Miyawaki 通过研究附近两座坟墓(美国和梼原)周围的森林，确定了该地区潜在的自然植被。 他选择了各种各样的树种，在基质上进行了试验，以便造林。 然后他创造了一个苗圃，在那里植物被混合，然后种植在这个地方，今天生活的森林完全由当地物种组成。 钢铁公司对这一结果非常满意，在过去的18年里，它已经在名古屋、境、釜石、 Futtu、光里、室兰和八幡的钢铁厂用这种方法种植了森林。 [需要引证]

Since then, Miyawaki and his colleagues and partners have successfully covered more than 1300 sites with multilayered protective forests, composed entirely of native species. The method has been tested successfully in almost all of Japan, sometimes on difficult substrates, including plantations to mitigate the effects of tsunamis on the coast, or typhoons in the port of Yokohama, wastelands, artificial islands, fixing crumbling slopes after road construction, and creating a forest on a cliff freshly cut with dynamite to construct the Monju Nuclear Power Plant in Fukui Prefecture.[citation needed]

## 5. International applications 国际应用

Miyawaki has instructed people on planting in over 1,700 areas around the world, including over 1,400 sites in Japan as well as in Borneo, Amazonia and China. He has been involved in the planting of over 40 million native trees, together with companies and citizens, to contribute to forest regeneration. Since 1978, Miyawaki has contributed to vegetation surveys in Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia.[citation needed]

From 1990, Miyawaki worked on restoring severely degraded tropical forests, including that of Bintulu (Sarawak, Malaysia). Thanks to sponsors, a seed bank of 201 tree species (mainly Dipterocarpaceae) from potential natural vegetation produced 600,000 seedlings in pots which were annually planted on site, under various conditions. In 2005, the surviving plants from 1991 (a major natural selection takes place, as is desired in the method) measured over 20 meters in height (growth of more than 1 metre per year) and the sedimentary facies of a young rainforest was reconstituting, protecting the soil, while fauna also was gradually reappearing.

In 2000, the Miyawaki method was tested for the first time in a Mediterranean ecosystem in Sardinia (Italy), on an area where traditional reforestation methods had failed.[8] The original method was adapted while maintaining its theoretical principles. Results obtained 2 and 11 years after planting were positive: plant biodiversity appears very high, and the new coenosis was able to evolve without further operative support.[9]

2000年，Miyawaki 方法首次在撒丁岛(意大利)的地中海生态系统中进行测试，该地区传统的造林方法已经失败。 [8]在保持其理论原则的同时，对原有的方法进行了修改。 种植后2年和11年取得的结果是积极的: 植物生物多样性显示非常高，新的群落能够进化而不需要进一步的操作支持。 [9]

In 2013, the Miyawaki Method of Environment Forest Plantation was applied in the Barapani Industrial Area, Umiam, North East India.[10]

2013年，Miyawaki 环境森林种植法在 Umiam 的 Barapani 工业区得到了应用。 [10]

In 2014, SayTrees switched to this method and using this method ever since, Bangalore, India.

2014年，在印度的班加罗尔，SayTrees 开始使用这种方法。

In 2018, the Miyawaki Method was used also in Paris, by the boomforest.org team to restore a 400 m2 area near Porte de Montreuil, in the Boulevard Périphérique a controlled-access dual-carriageway ring road around the French Capital.[11]

2018年，Miyawaki 方法在巴黎也得到了应用，由 boomforest.org 团队修复了蒙特勒伊门附近的一个400平方米的区域，这个区域位于法国首都附近的一条双车道环形公路环城大道。 [11]

In 2019, GreenYatra planted around 3000 trees creating first Miyawaki of Mumbai city at the CRWC, Railway Land, Jogeshwari Mumbai. GreenYatra would plant 10,00,000 more trees switching to this method across India within 1 year.

2019年，GreenYatra 在 CRWC，Railway Land，Jogeshwari Mumbai 种植了大约3000棵树，创造了孟买市的第一个 Miyawaki。 在一年之内，GreenYatra 将在印度各地种植10,000,000多棵树来采用这种方法。

On 5 June-2019, World Environment Day, IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) Ropar made the sacred forest of 550 trees of 40 native trees with this technique in a plot of 160 square metre. The forest was named after Guru Nanak Dev, the founder of Sikh religion.

2019年6月5日，世界环境日，印度理工学院(IIT) Ropar 使用这项技术在一块160平方米的土地上种植了40棵土生土长的550棵树。 这片森林是以锡克教创始人 Guru Nanak Dev 的名字命名的。

## 6. Method and conditions for success 成功的方法和条件

The Miyawaki method of reconstitution of "indigenous forests by indigenous trees" produces a rich, dense and efficient protective pioneer forest in 20 to 30 years, where natural succession would need 200 years in temperate Japan and 300 to 500 years in the tropics. Success requires compliance with the following phases:

Miyawaki 采用"本土树木重建本土森林"的方法，在20至30年内生产出丰富、密集和高效的保护性先锋森林，在日本温带地区，自然演替需要200年，在热带地区需要300至500年。 成功需要遵守以下阶段:

1. Rigorous initial site survey and research of potential natural vegetation.
严格的潜在自然植被初步调查与研究

2. Identification and collecting of a large number of various native seeds, locally or nearby and in a comparable geoclimatic context. 鉴定和收集大量当地或附近以及类似地球气候背景下的各种本地种子

3. Germination in a nursery (which requires a technique for some species, for example, those that germinate only after passing through the digestive tract of a certain animal, or that need a particular symbiotic fungus, or a cold induced dorming phase, etc.).
苗圃中的萌发(对某些物种来说需要一种技术，例如，那些只有通过某种动物的消化道才能萌发的，或者那些需要特殊技术的共生真菌, 或冷诱导睡眠期 等)

4. Preparation of the substrate if it is very degraded (addition of organic matter/mulch (for example with 3–4 kg of rice straw per square metre, to replace the protection afforded by surface humus and leaf litter) and (in areas with heavy or torrential rainfall) planting mounds for tap-root species that require a well-drained soil surface. Hill slopes can be planted with more ubiquitous surface roots species (cedar, Japanese cypress, pine, etc.)
基质的制备，如果它是容易降解(加入有机物 /覆盖物 (例如每平方米3-4公斤稻草，以取代地表腐殖质和落叶层） 及 (在有大雨或暴雨的地区) 在山丘种植主根类 的需要排水良好的土壤表面的物种。 山坡上可以种植更多的表面根系物种(雪松、日本扁柏、松树等等)。

5. Plantation respecting biodiversity inspired by the model of the natural forest. Miyawaki implements and recommends unusually dense plantation of very young seedlings (but with an already mature root system : with symbiotic bacteria and fungi present), for example 30 cm oaks from acorns, raised in a nursery over two years. Density aims at stirring competition between species and the onset of phytosociological relations close to what would happen in nature (30 to 50 plants per square metre in the temperate zone, up to 500 or even 1000 seedlings per square metre in Borneo);
关于种植生物多样性 的灵感来自于天然森林的模型。 宫胁实施和建议非常密集的种植非常年轻的幼苗(但有一个已经成熟的根系: 共生细菌和真菌）, 例如30厘米长的橡子橡树，在苗圃培育超过两年。 密度的目的在于引发物种之间的 竞争植物群落关系 接近自然界的情况(温带地区每平方米30至50株，婆罗洲地区每平方米500甚至1000株) ;

6. Plantations randomly distributed in space in the way plants are distributed in a clearing or at the edge of the natural forest, not in rows or staggered (meeting on this point with the Prosilva methods in Europe).
种植随机分布在空间中，植物分布在空地或天然林的边缘，而不是成行或交错分布(在这一点上与欧洲的Prosilva法符合)

The results show that this method, if properly applied, quickly produces a multi-layered forest and according to him, a soil with a microbial and acaricomposition quickly approaching that of a normal primary forest. He has published dozens of books, treatises, and articles on his researches and results.

## 7. Results 结果

According to the classical theory of succession initiated by Clements in the U.S., it should need 150 to 200 years for a young native forest with a multi-layered community to restore itself on bare soil in Japan, and it takes 300–500 years or more in the tropics of Southeast Asia.

Miyawaki seeks to accelerate the process of ecological healing by imitating as much as possible the normal composition of the primary forest in each context. He expects to get a restored temperate forest, whose facies and structure (distinct genetics, humus, and sections of old or dead wood) strongly resemble the native forest, in 20 to 30 years.

Miyawaki 试图通过尽可能多地模仿每种情况下原始森林的正常组成来加速生态愈合的进程。 他希望在20到30年内，恢复温带森林，其相和结构(明显的遗传基因，腐殖质，以及部分古老或枯死的木材)与原始森林非常相似。

Miyawaki has extensively tested the method in:

Miyawaki 在以下方面广泛测试了这种方法:

In each case, he was able to quickly restore a dense canopy reminiscent of the native forest.

In 1998, Miyawaki piloted a project of reconstruction of a forest dominated by the Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) along the Great Wall of China, gathering 4000 people to plant 400,000 trees, with the support of the Aeon Environment Foundation and the city of Beijing. The first trees planted by groups of Chinese and Japanese, on areas where the forest had long since gone, had grown over 3 m high in 2004 and - except for one part - continued to thrive in 2007.

1998年，Miyawaki 在永旺环境基金会和北京市的支持下，试行了一个中国长城沿线以蒙古栎为主的森林重建项目，聚集了4000人，种植了40万棵树。 2004年，中国人和日本人在森林早已消失的地区种植的第一批树木已超过3米高，除了一部分树木之外，其余树木在2007年继续茁壮成长。

Miyawaki also contributes to the massive reforestation in China by Government and Chinese citizens, no longer seeking to plant commercial species for commercial or ornamental purpose only, but to restore the natural potential vegetation, including in Pudon (west coast district in the special economic zone of Shanghai), Tsingtao (Qingdao), Ningbo, and Ma'anshan.

Miyawaki received the 2006 Blue Planet Award for his involvement in the protection of nature.[1]

His method had already been presented as exemplary in a preparatory report[12] for the 1992 Earth Summit, and in 1994 in the Biodiversity congress of the UNESCO in Paris. The method was also presented in 1991 at the Symposium of the University of Bonn, "restoration of tropical forest ecosystems " and at the congresses of the International Association for Ecology, the International Society for Vegetation Science, and the International Botanical Congress, including new aspects including the links between growth, natural habitat and estimated carbon fixation.

Curiously, despite more than 1,000 successful and sometimes spectacular experiences, the Western forestry or landscape world has rarely attempted to apply or even test the "Miyawaki method".

## 8. Criticism 批评

One of the few criticisms of the Miyawaki method (such as during the 1994 conference on Biodiversity at UNESCO in Paris) is that it produces a slightly monotonous visual appearance due to the first generation of trees all being the same age. This criticism is generally made on the basis of photographs taken after 10 or 20 years. But Miyawaki was among the first to emphasize the importance of not planting trees in a line or at equal distances (He would often have trees planted by the public or by young children to promote randomness). He wants to imitate the complexity and the semi- random nature of the plant community of native habitat. He promotes competition between plants, natural selection and plant associations. He believes that the faster-growing trees, the broken ones and those attacked by herbivores quickly produce new shoots resulting in low and intermediate strata.
Miyawaki方法的少数批评之一（例如在1994年巴黎教科文组织生物多样性会议期间）由于第一代树木都是同一年龄而产生略微单调的视觉外观。这种批评通常是根据10年或20年后拍摄的照片制作的。但是Miyawaki是第一个强调不在一条线或相同距离种植树木的重要性（他经常会让公众或幼儿种植树木以促进随机性）。他想模仿原生栖息地植物群落的复杂性和半随机性。他促进植物之间的竞争，自然选择和植物聚集。他认为生长得更快的树木，零碎的树木和那些被食草动物袭击的树木很快会产生新的枝条，导致低层和中层地层

Another criticism is the high cost of the first phase (nursery, soil preparation, dense planting), but the success rates are exceptionally good where conventional methods fail. The forests also require much less maintenance and attention. Some have lost most of their leaves in cyclones, but they resisted and helped protect the buildings where they were planted.

## 9. Biography 传记

• 1928: Born 29 January in 1928年1月29日出生Okayama 冈山
• 1952: Diploma in biology, 1952年: 生物学文凭,Hiroshima University 广岛大学
• 1958-1960: Visiting researcher under Reinhold Tüxen in 1958-1960年: 莱因霍尔德 · t · 岑任访问研究员Stolzenau 女名女子名, Germany ，德国
• 1961: Doctor of Science, Hiroshima University 1961年: 广岛大学科学博士
• 1961-1962: Researcher at 1961-1962年: 美国国立卫生研究院研究员Yokohama National University 横滨国立大学
• 1962-1973: Associate Professor at Yokohama National University 1962-1973年: 横滨国立大学副教授
• 1973-1993: Founding professor of the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology at Yokohama National University 1973-1993: 横滨国立大学环境科学与技术研究所创始教授
• 1985-1993: Director of the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology at Yokohama National University 1985-1993: 横滨国立大学环境科学与技术研究所所长
• 1993-: Professor Emeritus of Yokohama National University 1993年: 名誉教授横滨国立大学
• 1993-: Director of the Japanese Center for International Studies in Ecology 1993年至今: 日本国际生态学研究中心主任

He is a Honorary Member of the International Association for Vegetation Science (1997).[13]

## 10. Publications 刊物

### 10.1 in English 用英语

• Miyawaki A (1992). Restoration of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests in the Pacific Region. In: M.K. Wali (ed.). Miyawaki a (1992). 太平洋地区常绿阔叶林的恢复。 内容: m.k. Wali (编辑)Ecosystem Rehabilitation 生态系统重建. 2. Ecosystem Analysis and synthesis. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague . 图2。 生态系统分析与综合。 海牙 SPB 学术出版社
• Miyawaki A, K. Fujiwara & E.O. Box (1987). Toward harmonious green urban environments in Japan and other countries. Miyawaki a，k. Fujiwara & e.o. Box (1987). 日本及其他国家构建和谐的绿色城市环境Bull. Inst. Environ. Sci. Technol. 扯淡。 Inst. 环境。 科学。 泰诺科技. Yokohama Natl. Univ. 14: Yokohama. . 14: Yokohama
• Miyawaki A & S. Okuda (1991). Miyawaki a & s Okuda (1991)Vegetation of Japan Illustrated 日本植物图解. Shibundo, Tokyo (Japanese) . 东京志奔都(日语)
• Miyawaki A et al. (1983). Handbook of Japanese Vegetation 日本植物手册, Shibundo, Tokyo 东京，施班多
• Miyawaki A (1980-1989). Vegetation of Japan 日本的植被. vol. 1-10 . 第一卷。 1-10
• Miyawaki A (1985). Vegetation-Ecological Studies on Mangrove Forests in Thailand 泰国红树林植被生态学研究, Inst. Environ. Sci. Technol. Yokohama Natl. Univ., Yokohama 、 Inst。 环境。 科学。 泰诺科技。 横滨大学，横滨
• Miyawaki A, Bogenrider, S. Okuda & I. White (1987). Vegetation Ecology and Creation of New Environments. Miyawaki a，Bogenrider，s. Okuda & i. White (1987) . 植被生态学与新环境的创造Proceedings of International Symp. in Tokyo and Phytogeographical Excursion through Central Japan 国际交响乐协会会议录。 在东京和植物地理游览通过日本中部. Tokai Univ. Press, Tokyo . 东海大学。 新闻，东京
• Miyawaki A, & E. O. Box (1996). Miyawaki a，& E.o. Box (1996)The Healing Power of Forests -The Philosophy behind Restoring Earth's Balance with Native Trees 森林的治愈力量——用本土树木恢复地球平衡背后的哲学. 286 p. Kosei Publishing Co. Tokyo . 286 p. Kosei Publishing co. . 东京
• Miyawaki A, 宫胁甲Plants and Human 植物与人类 (NHK Books) (NHK 图书)
• Miyawaki A, 宫胁甲The Last Day for Man 人类的最后一天 (Chikuma Shobo)
• Miyawaki A, 宫胁甲Testimony by Green Plants 绿色植物的见证 (Tokyo Shoseki) (东京商关)
• Miyawaki A, 宫胁甲Prescription for Restoration of Green Environments 恢复绿色环境的处方 (Asahi Shinbun-sha) (朝日新闻社)
• Miyawaki A, 宫胁甲Chinju-no-mori (Native Forests of Native Trees) (Shincho-sha). (土生树木原生林)(新草沙)

### 10.2 in Japanese 用日语

• 日本植生誌 (literally : Japanese Plant Journal), edition 至文堂, 2000, Literally: Japanese Plant Journal, Edition to Wen Tang, 2000,ISBN 国际标准书号 978-4-7843-0040-2.
• 植物と人間 (lit. Of Plants and Men), editions NHK (文学)。 植物与人类》 ，日本放送协会版
• 緑回復の処方箋 (lit. Prescription for a Green Relaunch) Product reviews and reviews (lit. Prescription for a Green Relaunch)
• 鎮守の森 (lit. Forest Guardians), Shinshio Journal (新潮) 文之夜。 《森林守护者》 ，《新乡日报》
• いのちを守るドングリの森 保护生命的橡子森林

## 11. References 参考资料

1. ^ Jump up to:跳到:a b Ghosh, Nirmal (21 August 2008). "The tree guru". ST Blogs. Singapore Press Holdings Ltd. Co. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
2. ^ "Blue Planet Prize". Japan: The Asahi Glass Foundation. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
3. ^ Miyawaki, A.; E. O. Box (1996). The Healing Power of Forests -The Philosophy behind Restoring Earth's Balance with Native Trees. 286 p. Tokyo: Kosei Publishing Co.
4. ^ Jump up to:跳到:a b Miyawaki, A. (1980–1989). Vegetation of Japan. vol. 1-10.
5. ^ A. Miyawaki, 1992. 1992
6. ^ Miyawaki, A. (1992). Restoration of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests in the Pacific Region. In: M.K. Wali (ed.). Ecosystem Rehabilitation. 2. Ecosystem Analysis and synthesis. The Hague: SPB Academic Publishing. pp. 233–245.
7. ^ Miyawaki, A. (1983). ex : Handbook of Japanese Vegetation, 872 p. (names in Japanese and Latin), with maps of plant communities in Japan (168 p). Tokyo: Shibundo.
8. ^ "Restoring Mediterranean forests with the Miyawaki method" (PDF). DG Environment News Alert Service. European Union. 14 April 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 6 January2014.
9. ^ Bartolomeo Schirone; Antonello Salis; Federico Vessella (January 2011). "Effectiveness of the Miyawaki method in Mediterranean forest restoration programs". Landscape and Ecological Engineering. 7 (1): 81–92.
10. ^ "RNB Cements adopt Akira Miyawaki model of plantation elaborates how to plant a 'dense forest'". India: SP News Agency. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
11. ^ "Boomforest use Akira Miyawaki plantation technique". France: Boomforest Agency. 21 March 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
12. ^ "Changing Course". Business Council for Sustainable Development report. 1992.
13. ^ http://iavs.org/Awards/Honorary-Members.aspx

Categories 类别

• 私有
• 公开
• 删除