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@zhongdao 2019-10-16T07:37:09.000000Z 字数 7026 阅读 1096

食物森林中常见guild整理

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目标

有时间的话,需要补充一些英文到中文的植物名称的对应。

食物森林的搭配或者叫共生群落 叫做 guilds, 有一些经典的搭配,但是只有英文名,需要找到植物学名,再对应翻译为中文。

常见guilds有, 怎么查也有方法。
1. 找出有疑问的英文名称,并且列出来。我来汇总写邮件给相关人询问。
2. 没有疑问的, 将英文名附上 植物学名,中文名。

分层,有林冠层,亚冠层,灌木,攀援植物,草本和地面覆盖层。

对于英文名称,一般用google翻译即可。但是也有不准确的时候,就需要翻译成植物学名

https://pfaf.org/user/Default.aspx
搜英文名,翻译成植物学名。
put in the name in English and then see what's the botanical name, translate that name into Chinese.

植物学名是指用拉丁文书写的符合《国际植物命名法规》各项原则的科学名称,每种植物只有一个,也只能有一个学名。
所以可以从学名准确翻译成中文名。

对于学名,想知道其对应中文名称,可以搜索:http://www.cfh.ac.cn/Spdb/spsearch.aspx?aname=

也可以google和wikipedia来搜索。

举例:

英文名 学名/拉丁名 中文名 别名 备注
乔木层/冠 Apple Malus domestica 苹果 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple

背景资料

先学习和了解下这3个,然后再开始上面的翻译和对应。

https://www.zybuluo.com/zhongdao/note/1617100 食物森林建立学习笔记

https://shimo.im/sheets/4fNCQ8YuJoMTL6Bm/MODOC 国家和北京的一些植物名单。

https://www.zybuluo.com/zhongdao/note/1616755 朴门概念与翻译 Permaculture guild等

常见 guilds 英文

GUILD RECIPES

Guilds are at the very core of forest gardening. In his book, Creating Forest Gardens, Martin Crawford recommends that in an ideal guild you’ll have plants of various types performing the following functions:

• Nitrogen-fixing plants to supply nitrogen.
• Mineral-accumulator plants to help supply other nutrients.
• Beneficial-insect plants to minimise pest problems.
• Bee plants, both for wild and honey bees.
• Plants with differing root systems, to exploit the soil space and soil layers efficiently.
• Aromatic plants to confuse pests and increase system health.
• Ground-cover plants to densely cover the soil surface.

With that in mind, here are 18 examples that I sourced from various places.

  1. APPLE GUILD
  2. APPLE GUILD
  3. APPLE GUILD
  4. CHESTNUT GUILD
  5. CHESTNUT GUILD
  6. CHESTNUT, PLUM, PEACH
  7. WALNUT GUILD
  8. WALNUT GUILD
  9. PEACH GULD
  10. ASIAN PEAR
  11. EUROPEAN PEAR
  12. PLUM
  13. APPLE
  14. NATIVE PLUM
  15. MULBERRY AND ELDERBERRY
  16. MEDLAR GUILD
  17. OAK GUILD
  18. MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE TREE GUILDS

1. APPLE GUILD

Source: Edible Acres Youtube channel:
- Polycultures and Guilds - Episode 1 - Apples -n- more!: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1lS8cKmaXqw&feature=youtu.be

CANOPY LAYER
- Apple
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Persimmon
- Paw paw
SHRUB LAYER
- Red currant
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Garlic
- Rhubarb
- Comfrey

2. APPLE GUILD

Source: Toby Hemenway presentation “Designin Permaculture Plant Guilds”: https://prezi.com/xoetxn_iou0n/designing-permaculture-plant-guilds/

CANOPY LAYER
- Apple
SHRUB LAYER
- Currant
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Fennel
- Mint
- Salvia
- Comfrey

3. APPLE GUILD

Source Toby Hemenway, Gaia’s Garden

CANOPY LAYER
- Apple
SHRUB LAYER
- Hickory
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Garlic
- Chives
- Wild leek
- Dill
- Fennel
- bee balm
- Yarrow
- Plantain
- Comfrey
- Artichoke

4. CHESTNUT GUILD

Source: Edible Acres Youtube channel:
- Polycultures and Guilds Ep2 - Grapes, Honey locust and more!: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YPjBJIuAwhE

CANOPY LAYER
- Chestnut
- Northern pecan
- American persimmon
- Honey locust
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Siberian apricot
SHRUB LAYER
- Elderberry
- Buckthorn
- Gooseberries
- Serviceberries
CLIMBERS
- Concord grapes
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Bee balm
- Valerian

5. CHESTNUT GUILD

Source: Edible Acres Youtube channel:
- Polycultures and Guilds 5 - Chestnut with Allies: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=htVKnliIZlA

CANOPY LAYER
- Chestnut
- Carpathian walnut
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Mulberry
- Nanking cherry
SHRUB LAYER
- Black cap raspberries
CLIMBERS
- Climber beans
- Squash
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Thyme
- Prickly pear
- Amaranth
- Collards
- Calendula
- Kale
- Walking onion
- Turkish rocket
- Arthemisia
GROUND COVER LAYER
- Stropharia mushroom
- Clover
ROOT LAYER
- Ground nut

6. CHESTNUT, PLUM, PEACH

Source: Edible Acres Youtube channel:
- Polycultures and Guilds - 3 - Succession design and dense food forest: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhG1qS8kYOg

CANOPY LAYER
- Chestnut
- Chickaway Plum
- Peach
- Hickory
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Paw paw
SHRUB LAYER
- Bush cherries
- Black currant
CLIMBERS
- Hardy kiwi
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Tulips
- Sweet Cicely
- Irises
- Lilacs
- Walking onions
- Valerian

7. WALNUT GUILD

Source: Edible Acres Youtube channel:
- Polycultures and Guilds 4 - Many MANY layers: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pPTUuTfNrPE

CANOPY LAYER
- Carpathian walnut
- Sweet cherry
- American persimmon
- Black locust
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Autumn olive
- Red buds
SHRUB LAYER
- Nanking cherry
- Red currant
- Crusader black currant
- Tailor raspberries
- Raspberries
- Elderberries
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Profusion sorrel
- Alpine strawberry
- Sedum
- Good King Henry
- Chervil
- Angelica
- Lovage
- Skirret
- Tarragon

8. WALNUT GUILD

Courtesy of Tim Murphy, Regenesis Group. Source: Gaia’s Garden

CANOPY LAYER
- Walnut
SUB-CANOPY
- Russian olive
SHRUB LAYER
- Hackberries
- Currants
- Wolfberry
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Tomato
- Pepper
- Nightshade

➔ Bonus plants to buffer juglone’s effect on other plants: Elderberry, Mulberry, Black locust

9. PEACH GUILD

Courtesy of Jerome Osentowski, Central Rocky Mountain Permaculture Institute. Source: Gaia’s Garden

CANOPY LAYER
- Peach
SHRUB LAYER
- Siberian pea shrub

HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Sunflowers
- Cabbage
- Comfrey
- Horseradish
- Calendula
GROUND COVER
- Clover

10. ASIAN PEAR

Source: Food Production 101:
- Fruit tree guilds: http://foodproduction101.com/tag/fruit-tree-guilds/
- Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cvu3jgLNm8&feature=youtu.be

CANOPY LAYER
- Asian pear
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Guomi
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Comfrey
- Chives
- Chicory
GROUND COVER
- Alfalfa

11. EUROPEAN PEAR

Source: Food Production 101:
- Fruit tree guilds: http://foodproduction101.com/tag/fruit-tree-guilds/
- Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cvu3jgLNm8&feature=youtu.be

CANOPY LAYER
- European pear
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Guomi
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Comfrey
- Chicory
- Yarrow
- Oregano
GROUND COVER
- Alfalfa
- Clover

12. PLUM

Source: Food Production 101:
- Fruit tree guilds: http://foodproduction101.com/tag/fruit-tree-guilds/
- Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cvu3jgLNm8&feature=youtu.be

CANOPY LAYER
- Plum
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Autumn olive
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Milkweed
- Yarrow
- Comfrey
- Oregano
- Chicory
GROUND COVER
- Alfalfa
- Clover

13. APPLE

Source: Food Production 101:
- Fruit tree guilds: http://foodproduction101.com/tag/fruit-tree-guilds/
- Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cvu3jgLNm8&feature=youtu.be

CANOPY LAYER
- Apple
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Guomi
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Comfrey
- Chicory
- Chives

14. NATIVE PLUM

Source: Food Production 101:
- Fruit tree guilds: http://foodproduction101.com/tag/fruit-tree-guilds/
- Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cvu3jgLNm8&feature=youtu.be

CANOPY LAYER
- Native plum
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Alder
SHRUB LAYER
- Elderberry
- New Jersey tea
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Oregano
- Yarrow
- Comfrey
- Chicory
- Shasta daisy
- Parsnip
- Plantain
GROUND COVER
- Alfalfa
- Clover

15. MULBERRY AND ELDERBERRY

Source: Food Production 101:
- Fruit tree guilds: http://foodproduction101.com/tag/fruit-tree-guilds/
- Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cvu3jgLNm8&feature=youtu.be

SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Mulberry
- Guomi
- Alder
SHRUB LAYER
- Elderberry
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Comfrey
- Chicory
- Yarrow
- Oregano
- Milkweed
GROUND COVER
- Alfalfa

➔ 1 comfey per tree is enough

16. MEDLAR GUILD

Source: Balkep - Balkan Ecology Project, Paul Alfrey:

- https://balkanecologyproject.blogspot.hr/2015/11/permaculturepolyculture.html#

SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Medlar
SHRUB LAYER
- Aronia
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Comfrey
- Tree onion
GROUND COVER
- Clover

17. OAK GUILD

Source: Midwest Permaculture, 9 Sample Plant Guilds:

- https://midwestpermaculture.com/2013/04/plant-guilds/

CANOPY LAYER
- Oak
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Paw paw
SHRUB LAYER
- Hazelnut
- Gooseberries
- Currants
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Comfrey
- Horseradish
- Borage
GROUND COVER
- Strawberries

18. MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE TREE GUILDS

Source: School of Permaculture Youtube channel:
- Permaculture Tip of the Day - Mediterranean Tree Guilds That Work! - https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=78&v=Bb6MwuQfgNw

CANOPY LAYER
- Mulberry (Oscar, Persian, Pakistani)
SUB-CANOPY LAYER
- Olives
SHRUB LAYER
- Pineapple guava
CLIMBERS
- Grapes
HERBACEOUS LAYER
- Irises

AND

TREE LAYER
- White sapote
- White leadtree
SHRUB
- Loquat

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