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每个永续农场的水资源管理中英对照

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原文链接:
https://permacultureapprentice.com/permaculture-water-management/

下面是机器翻译的中英对照。

Water Management For Every Permaculture Farm

每个永续农场的水资源管理

April 17, 2017 by papprentice 4 Comments

When I was a kid, my brother and I used to enjoy the winter weather at my grandparents’ farm in the mountains. In a beautiful interplay of natural forces, throughout the winter and early spring we would play in half a meter of snow, walk on frozen lakes and then run from the floodwaters once the snow had thawed.

当我还是个孩子的时候,我和哥哥经常在我爷爷奶奶在山上的农场里享受冬天的天气。 在自然力量的美丽相互作用下,整个冬季和初春,我们会在半米厚的雪中玩耍,在结冰的湖面上行走,一旦雪融化,我们就会从洪水中逃离。

We always looked forward to wintertime and knew what to expect. Now that we’ve grown, however, these natural cycles of snow, ice, and floodwater have changed significantly. It’s not like there are not they no longer exist, but everything has become so much less predictable, and so much more extreme.

我们总是盼望着冬天的到来,知道会发生什么。 然而,现在我们已经成长起来,这些雪、冰和洪水的自然循环已经发生了显著的变化。 并不是说他们不存在了,但是一切都变得如此不可预测,如此极端。

This weird weather is the new normal for many of us. It is beyond doubt that we all are experiencing more extreme and erratic weather cycles, with huge downpours and flash floods on the one hand and extreme droughts on the other.

这种奇怪的天气对我们许多人来说是新的常态。 毫无疑问,我们都在经历更加极端和不稳定的气候周期,一方面是倾盆大雨和骤发洪水,另一方面是极端干旱。

Now, maybe meteorologists will one day call this period of weird weather some fancy term such as the ‘mid-millennium little warming period’ and, looking long term, it will just be blamed on a statistical error, but for us living through this period, it is the new normal. If this new normal continues for just 50 years, while it may a tiny speck of time in the Earth’s history from a climate science perspective, for many of us it’s going to be the rest of our lives, and the lives of our children.

现在,也许有一天气象学家会把这段奇怪的天气称为一些花哨的术语,比如“千年中期小变暖期” ,从长远来看,这只会被归咎于统计错误,但是对于我们生活在这个时期的人来说,这是一种新的常态。 如果这种新的常态只持续50年,而从气候科学的角度来看,它可能只是地球历史上的一小段时间,对于我们中的许多人来说,它将是我们的余生,以及我们孩子的余生。

It is this new reality to which we have to adapt and create resilient extreme weatherproof systems that are able to handle either too much or not enough water, all in one growing season. In these circumstances, where water from rainfall is generally in short supply while at other times there is run-off from rainfall, the plan for the control of water is paramount and involves a combination of earthworks, soil-building techniques and irrigation pipes.

正是这种新的现实,我们必须适应和创造弹性极端的防风雨系统,能够处理过多或不足的水,所有在一个生长季节。 在这些情况下,由于降雨引起的水一般供应不足,而在其他情况下则由于降雨引起的水流失,控制水的计划至关重要,涉及土方工程、土壤建造技术和灌溉管道的组合。

Let’s dig deeper...

让我们深入挖掘..。

Quick Navigation 快速导航

Permaculture Water Management 永久性水资源管理

Assessing Your Site's Water Needs and Resources 评估场地的用水需求和资源

Storing Water in the Soil 在土壤中储存水

Storing Water on the Surface 在地表储存水

Conclusion 总结


Permaculture Water Management 永久性水资源管理

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Nothing defines the nature of a place more than water! Without water we have deserts almost devoid of life, but with an abundance of water we have rainforests that are the hubs of the Earth’s biodiversity.

没有什么比水更能定义一个地方的本质了! 没有水,我们的沙漠几乎没有生命,但有丰富的水,我们的热带雨林是地球生物多样性的中心。

Water is always the number one priority for any permaculture system, as Mark Shepard would say: No matter where you go and what mineral deficiencies you have, there are plants who can adapt to these conditions, but no plant can live without water! That’s why Permaculture design tries to harvest, retain and rescue as much water as possible before it is lost from the system.

水永远是任何永续栽培系统的首要任务,正如马克 · 谢泼德所说: 不管你去哪里,不管你有什么矿物质缺乏,总有植物能够适应这些条件,但是没有植物能够离开水而生存! 这就是为什么朴门永续设计试图在水分从系统中流失之前,尽可能多地收获、保留和拯救水分。

There are two basic strategies of water conservation on a permaculture farm: storing water in the soil and the diversion of surface water to dams/ponds and tanks for later use; storing it on the surface.

永续经营农场的水资源保护有两个基本战略: 在土壤中储存水和将地表水引入水坝 / 池塘和水箱以供日后使用; 将水储存在地表。

First we want to slow, spread, and sink water as it falls from the sky into the soil. Following this, our secondary goals, as Ben Falk writes in Resilient Farm and Homestead, are to: (1) capture as much water as is reasonably possible, (2) store that water for dry periods, and (3) distribute that water when necessary across the site. Whether you’re going to use one or both of these strategies depends on your site conditions: climate, terrain, soil, your context…

首先,当水从天空落入土壤时,我们要减缓、扩散和下沉。 接下来,我们的次要目标,正如本 · 福尔克在《弹性农场和家园》一书中所写的,是: (1)尽可能多地获取水资源,(2)为干旱时期储存水资源,(3)在必要时将水资源分配到整个场地。 你是否会使用其中一种或两种策略取决于你的场地条件: 气候,地形,土壤,你的环境..。

However, as I said, the first objective of landscape design is to control and better use the water that falls on the surface of the land. You want to disperse the flow of water so it can slow down and infiltrate into soil, turning this runoff into soak-in. Essentially, you want to make the water stroll, not run, through the landscape and for this we must shape the land in such a way (more on that later) that it facilitates getting water into the ground and storing it there.

然而,正如我所说,景观设计的首要目标是控制和更好地利用落在地面上的水。 你需要驱散水的流动,这样它就可以减慢速度并渗入土壤,使这些径流变得可以被吸收。 从本质上说,你想让水漫步,而不是奔跑,穿过风景,为此我们必须塑造这样的土地(稍后再详述) ,它有利于获得水进入地面和储存在那里。

Once you’ve made the best use of the fallen rainfall and stored that water in the soil, you’ll get runoff as the field capacity of soil is reached. Truth be told, you might get this runoff straight away if your site’s watershed is in a bad shape; however, whatever the case, you can begin diverting and storing that water on the surface in ponds and tanks. How much water you’ll be able to store on the surface depends on many factors: your climate, terrain, soil, budget…

一旦你充分利用了降雨量,并将其储存在土壤中,你就会得到径流,因为土壤的田间容量已经达到。 说实话,如果你的工地的分水岭形状不好,你可能会直接得到这些径流; 然而,无论如何,你可以开始将这些水分流并储存在池塘和水箱的表面。 你能在地表储存多少水取决于许多因素: 你的气候,地形,土壤,预算..。

Here, I’ll outline the entire process of water management for a permaculture farm, and this includes, but is not limited, to:

在这里,我将概述一个永续耕作农场的水资源管理的整个过程,包括但不限于:


Assessing Your Site's Water Needs and Resources 评估场地的用水需求和资源

The first issues to address are what water resources are available to your property, and what exactly are your needs?

首先要解决的问题是你的财产可以获得哪些水资源,你到底需要什么?

1) Your goals and context - what are your water needs, and how do you plan to use your harvested water?

1)你的目标和环境——你的水需求是什么,你计划如何使用你收获的水?

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Can we do anything without being clear on what our goals and context are? NO… of course not!

如果我们不清楚我们的目标和背景是什么,我们能做任何事情吗? 不... 当然不是!

You’ll have to be clear on what you want to achieve with your water system from the outset, because you want to know what size of storage you’ll have to build and, most importantly, whether they’ll be possible to build due to your terrain and your budget.

你必须从一开始就清楚你想用你的供水系统达到什么目的,因为你想知道你需要建造多大的存储空间,最重要的是,由于你的地形和你的预算,他们是否可能建造。

First, think about how you are planning to use the water: do you need water for household use, livestock, irrigation, fish production, fire protection, recreation…?

首先,想想你打算如何使用水: 你需要家庭用水、牲畜用水、灌溉用水、养鱼用水、消防用水、娱乐用水吗?

Following this, try to get a ballpark estimate of how much water you’ll need for each of these activities - calculate how much you need.

接下来,试着大致估算一下每项活动你需要多少水-计算一下你需要多少水。

Finally, think about what, realistically, you can build. Here, your budget, available space and aesthetics are all factors you need to consider.

最后,现实地考虑一下,你可以构建什么。 在这里,你需要考虑的因素包括预算、可用空间和美观。

This thinking process can eliminate a great deal of unnecessary planning and will help you prioritize based on the reality of your situation. That’s why we always start with being clear on your context and your goals: The best way to save money on a project is not to start it in the first place!

这种思考过程可以消除大量不必要的计划,并将帮助你根据实际情况进行优先排序。 这就是为什么我们总是从清楚你的环境和你的目标开始: 在一个项目上省钱的最好方法就是从一开始就不要开始它!

2) Identify the sources of water

2)确定水的来源

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Once you have an idea on your water needs and how you plan to use your harvested water, let’s see what water sources are available to your farm. As I explained in the last post, you can find this out by searching for information online and by reading the landscape.

一旦你对你的用水需求有了一个想法,并计划如何使用你收获的水,让我们看看你的农场有哪些水源。 正如我在上一篇文章中解释的那样,你可以通过在线搜索信息和阅读风景来找到答案。

So, the first question you should be asking yourself is: how much precipitation am I getting within the year - what is my average annual rainfall measured on mm or inches? Secondly, how is that precipitation distributed throughout the year? Is it being delivered in heavy downpours, only during the winter, or equally distributed throughout the year?

因此,你应该问自己的第一个问题是: 我在一年中得到了多少降雨量——我的平均年降雨量是多少(毫米或英寸) ? 其次,全年的降水量是如何分配的? 是只在冬季的大雨中运送,还是全年平均分发?

Your water systems will be completely different based on these numbers. If you get 600mm as an average rainfall and most of it falls in a few huge summer storms, this will require a completely different approach than 1200mm equally distributed throughout the year.

根据这些数字,你的供水系统将会完全不同。 如果你的平均降雨量是600毫米,而且大部分降雨发生在夏季的几场暴风雨中,那么这将需要一个完全不同于全年均匀分布的1200毫米降雨量的方法。

The precipitation and its distribution will be the foundation for your planning, and you can find this crucial information easily on the Internet just a few clicks away. Now, for other sources of water on your property and beyond, you’ll have to do some permaculture detective work.

降水量和它的分布将是你计划的基础,你可以很容易地在互联网上找到这些重要的信息,只需点击几下鼠标。 现在,对于你家和其他地方的其他水源,你必须做一些永久性的调查工作。

You’ll want to distinguish any streams that are running across your property. This flowing water is essentially runoff from outside the boundaries of your property and within your watershed. You can’t control how this water gets onto your site, but you can use it for your water needs if necessary. That’s why you need to know the precise reliability of your water source. Is it perennial or just seasonal? Can you count on it when there is a drought?

您需要区分任何流经您的属性。 这些流动的水基本上是来自你的土地边界之外和你的分水岭之内的径流。 你无法控制这些水是如何进入你的场地的,但是如果需要的话,你可以用它来满足你的用水需求。 这就是为什么你需要知道你的水源的精确可靠性。 它是常年生长还是只是季节性的? 干旱的时候你能指望它吗?

Lastly, consider if there is undergoing water that’s available to you. As I outlined in the landscape post, you can’t reliably tell how much water you’ll have under your feet unless you drill a well, but there is a tell-tale sign you can spot in the landscape: If you have any groundwater, it’s another water source which you should take into account.

最后,考虑一下是否有可用的水。 正如我在这篇景观文章中所概述的那样,除非你钻一口井,否则你不可能准确地知道你脚下有多少水,但是在景观中你可以发现一个泄露秘密的标志: 如果你有地下水,那就是另一个你应该考虑的水源。

3) Watershed - determining your place in the hydrologic cycle and your site’s watershed

3)分水岭——决定你在水文循环中的位置和你的场地的分水岭

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Okay, so once you’ve got an idea about the precipitation you’re getting and other water sources available to you, you can start by analyzing your watershed and determining your place of the hydrologic cycle.

好的,一旦你对你所得到的降水量和其他可用的水资源有了一个概念,你就可以开始分析你的流域,并确定你在水文循环中的位置。

Every piece of land belongs to a watershed, and it’s defined as an area of land that drains runoff from rain or snow downhill from the highest geographical barriers, such as hills, ridges and mountains, to a specific low point, generally a tributary outlet to a larger river or a lake.

每一块土地都属于一个分水岭,它被定义为一块土地,这块土地将雨水或雪水从最高的地理屏障---- 如丘陵、山脊和山脉---- 排放到一个特定的低点,通常是一个支流出口,流向一条更大的河流或湖泊。

On a larger scale, your land is almost sure to be a part of a regional watershed that drains thousands of square miles or kilometers of land, creating streams and rivers. Although knowing your regional watershed might not have an immediate use to you, I would recommend that you first look at the broader watershed.

在更大的尺度上,你的土地几乎肯定是一个区域分水岭的一部分,这个分水岭排干了数千平方英里或数千公里的土地,形成了小溪和河流。 虽然了解您的区域分水岭可能不会立即对您有用,但我建议您首先看看更广泛的分水岭。

Water movement on your site or within your area is a function of where you are in the overall watershed. For example, if you’re high in the hills, you’ll have a small flow of water, probably some small creeks, but on the other hand, if you’re low in the landscape, there be lots of water, probably rivers rather than creeks.

水在你的场地或在你的区域内的运动是一个功能,你在整个分水岭。 例如,如果你在高山上,你会有一小股水流,可能是一些小溪,但是另一方面,如果你在低山上,那里有很多水,可能是河流而不是小溪。

However, to access your site’s actual water resources, you’ll have to look at your site’s watershed or the sub-watershed. You might belong to an extensive watershed, but the precise quantities will depend on the local site’s terrain.

然而,要访问你的场地的实际水资源,你必须看看你的场地的流域或子流域。 你可能属于一个广泛的分水岭,但准确的数量将取决于当地的地形。

Nothing can be more critical to this process of identifying your site’s watershed than understanding the land patterns represented by topographical maps. For this, you’ll have to be able to recognize the contours for their definition of ridges, saddles and valleys/gullies. This is essential for the effective calculation of catchments.

没有什么比了解地形图所代表的土地模式对于确定你的场地的分水岭的过程更重要的了。 为此,你必须能够识别轮廓的山脊,鞍座和山谷 / 沟壑的定义。 这对于有效地计算流域面积是必不可少的。

To start assessing your site’s watershed, you’ll have to define boundaries of your property and the watershed directly affecting your site. You can do this by looking at a topographic map and identifying the divide lines (or center lines) on the ridges. The lines located at the tip of the ridges determine if water is flowing toward or away from your location. Find those lines…

要开始评估你的场地的分水岭,你必须定义你的财产的边界和直接影响你的场地的分水岭。 您可以通过查看地形图和识别山脊上的分水岭线(或中心线)来做到这一点。 位于山脊顶端的线条决定了水是流向你的位置还是流离你的位置。 找到那些线..。

Once you know where they are you’ll have an idea of the boundaries of that catchment and, by using simple math or online tools, you’ll get an estimate of the size of this surface area.

一旦你知道了它们的位置,你就会知道集水区的边界,通过使用简单的数学或在线工具,你就会得到这个表面面积的大小估计。

4) Calculate your site’s rainfall volume - your water budget

4)计算你的场地的降雨量-你的用水预算

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After you have an idea of the size of your watershed and the average rainfall you’ll receive, it’s easy to calculate your water budget. The first step in doing so is to multiply these two numbers. Calculating rainfall volumes or total rainwater you can get = watershed area x average yearly rainfall.

当你知道了你的分水岭的大小和你将得到的平均降雨量后,计算你的水资源预算就很容易了。 这样做的第一步是把这两个数字相乘。 计算降雨量或总雨水你可以得到流域面积 x 平均年降雨量。

This number gives you the total rainwater volume assuming there is a 100% runoff, and since we’re not calculating runoff from a concrete patio or a metal roof, we need to adjust that number. You can get a ballpark estimate of runoff volume from any sloped surface by multiplying the volume of rain that falls on that surface by its runoff coefficient.

这个数字给出了假设有100% 径流的总雨水量,由于我们没有计算来自混凝土露台或金属屋顶的径流量,我们需要调整这个数字。 你可以通过降雨量乘以地表径流系数,得到任何坡面径流量的大致估算值。

The runoff coefficient is the average percentage of rainwater that runs off a certain type of surface, and it all depends on what the surface is composed of and the rain intensity - the higher the intensity, the higher the runoff coefficient. I won’t go into details here about calculating rainfall volumes using different coefficients. Instead, if you’re going to run some equations yourself, you can use the following tables from this Darren Doherty’s article…

径流系数是指雨水流出某一类型地表的平均百分比,它完全取决于地表的组成和雨强——雨强越大,径流系数越大。 在这里,我不会详细介绍使用不同系数计算降雨量的方法。 相反,如果你打算自己运行一些方程式,你可以使用这篇 Darren Doherty 文章中的下列表格..。

Now that you’ve calculated you site’s rainfall volume, and taken into consideration any surface streams and underground water, it’s time to circle back to your goals and needs to see is this water budget is sufficient to sustain your needs, along with needs of your crops and livestock. Here’s where reality kicks in and you’ll see what’s possible and what isn’t…

现在你已经计算了你所在地区的降雨量,并且考虑到了任何地表水和地下水,是时候回到你的目标,并且需要知道这个水量预算是否足够维持你的需求,以及你的庄稼和牲畜的需求。 现实就是这样开始的,你会看到什么是可能的,什么是不可能的... ..。


Storing Water in the Soil 在土壤中储存水

Okay, so let’s now start with storing the water in the soil. The cheapest place to store water is in the soil - it’s the largest storage resource available on most sites. Maybe you have big plans for interconnected network of cascading ponds but let’s first cover the essentials that won’t cost that much money. Our initial efforts should always be to get water into the ground and store it there.

好,我们现在开始把水储存在土壤里。 最便宜的地方储存水是在土壤-这是最大的储存资源可在大多数地点。 也许你已经有了一个庞大的连接网络的计划,但是让我们先来看看那些不需要花费太多钱的要点。 我们最初的努力应该始终是把水引入地下并储存在那里。

To store water in the soil you have to focus on two objectives. The first is to slow, spread and sink the rainfall so that the water takes the longest possible path across your land, rubbing to as many things as possible, spreading where it’s needed, giving it time to infiltrate before it eventually leaves your site and drains away.

为了在土壤中储存水分,你必须专注于两个目标。 第一种方法是减缓、扩散和降雨,这样雨水就会在你的土地上占据尽可能长的路径,摩擦尽可能多的东西,向需要的地方扩散,给它时间渗透,最终离开你的土地并排干。

Your second objective is to build the soil’s organic matter, because the key to the soil’s capacity to hold water is the organic matter. The organic matter acts as a sponge and absorbs the water that’s slowly moving across the landscape. So it’s imperative that, if you want to store more water in the soil, you must promote organic-matter-rich topsoil.

你的第二个目标是建立土壤的有机物质,因为土壤保持水分能力的关键是有机物质。 有机物就像一块海绵,吸收缓慢流过地表的水分。 因此,如果你想在土壤中储存更多的水,你必须促进有机物质丰富的表层土壤。

Research shows that soil with as little as 2% organic matter can reduce the irrigation needed by 75% when compared to poor soils having less than 1% organic matter. Therefore, you’ll want to focus on developing the soil sponge.

研究表明,与有机质含量低于1% 的贫瘠土壤相比,有机质含量低至2% 的土壤可以减少75% 的灌溉量。 因此,你需要专注于开发土壤海绵。

You’ll also need to shape the land in such a way as to slow-spread and sink water for that sponge to absorb. To do this you can use two very famous techniques: 1. keyline plowing/subsoiling and, 2. Swales on the contour. Let’s start with keyline…

你还需要将土地塑造成一个缓慢扩散的形状,让海绵吸收下沉的水。 要做到这一点,你可以使用两个非常著名的技巧: 1。 挖沟 / 深松,以及2。 斯韦尔斯的轮廓。 让我们从钥匙线开始..。

Keyline plowing /subsoiling - Keyline Pattern Cultivation

Keyline耕作 / 深松. Keyline模式栽培

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The concept of keyline agriculture emerged from the drylands of Australia thanks to P.A. Yeoman. This now legendary Australian bloke has shaped how we permaculturists think about managing water on the farm.

关键农业的概念源于澳大利亚的旱地,这要感谢 p.a. 约曼公司。 这个现在是澳大利亚传奇人物的家伙塑造了我们这些多毛主义者对农场水资源管理的看法。

While keyline agriculture contains many concepts, its most fundamental is to spread the abundance of water from where it is concentrated in we****t areas to areas that are consistently too dry. You see, normally water flows from ridges into valleys. The ridges stay dry, and the valleys accumulate moisture.

虽然重点农业包含许多概念,但其最基本的是将丰富的水从集中在潮湿地区的地方传播到一贯过于干旱的地区。 你看,通常水从山脊流入山谷。 山脊保持干燥,山谷积累水分。

However, by using a keyline cultivation pattern, you can channel the water away from the valleys and towards the ridges, and, by so doing, distribute it evenly over the land and increase the infiltration. This is achieved by using the tractor and ripping lines (opening up furrows in the soil) with a keyline plow parallel to keyline (thus giving the name keyline cultivation pattern).

然而,通过使用Keyline耕作模式,你可以引导水离开山谷向山脊,这样做,它均匀地分布在土地上,增加渗透。 这是通过使用拖拉机和翻耕线(在土壤中打开犁沟)与Keyline平行犁(因此命名Keyline耕作模式)。

These small water channels in the soil, these hundreds of small drains, will then intercept water that flows down toward the valleys and move it in the other direction, toward the ridges. The net effect is that rip lines hold water for infiltration, instead of the water running down the slope. With more water in the soil, plant growth and soil microbes increase.

这些土壤中的小水渠,这些数以百计的小沟渠,将拦截流向山谷的水,然后将水向山脊的另一个方向移动。 最终的结果是,裂缝线保持了水的渗透,而不是水流下来的斜坡。 随着土壤中水分的增加,植物生长和土壤微生物增加。

Keyline cultivation is also a soil improvement system, as it promotes rapid topsoil formation. As you create furrows in the soil and rip the subsoil you allow water and air to infiltrate deeper into the soil where they can be used by plants. This can break up the hard pan and build rich fertile soils, and, as you already know, as soil becomes fertile, more water can be absorbed and stored.

基线耕作也是一个土壤改良系统,因为它促进快速表层土壤形成。 当你在土壤中造成沟壑,撕裂下层土壤时,你让水和空气渗透到土壤的更深处,在那里它们可以被植物利用。 这可以打破坚硬的平底锅,建立肥沃的土壤,并且,正如你已经知道的,当土壤变得肥沃,更多的水分可以被吸收和储存。

So, now you can see why keyline pattern cultivation is such a great tool in managing water on a permaculture farm. It can harvest rainwater, distribute it equally and build rich, fertile soils by turning subsoil into topsoil. I don’t want to make this post longer than it has to be, so I won’t go into how to find a keyline at this point, instead you can read P.A. Yeoman’s book Water For Every Farm.

所以,现在你可以看到,为什么 keyline 模式栽培是一个如此伟大的工具,管理水在一个永久培养农场。 它可以收集雨水,平均分配,并通过将底土转化为表土来建立肥沃的土壤。 我不想把这篇文章写得太长,所以这里我就不深入探讨如何找到一条关键线索,相反,你可以阅读 p.a. Yeoman 的书《每个农场都有水》。

Swales on contour

斯维尔斯在等高线上

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Your second strategy for storing water in the soil is by using swales. Swales also help us to slow, spread, and sink water, allowing us to hold off the runoff water and allowing it to seep into the soil, thus storing it there.

你在土壤中储存水的第二个策略是使用 swales。 斯维尔斯还帮助我们减缓水分的扩散和下沉,使我们能够阻止径流的水分渗入土壤,从而将其储存起来。

In his book Gaia's Garden, Toby Hemenway describes a swale as: a shallow trench laid out dead level along the land’s contours. It can be anything from one to several feet across, a foot or so deep, and whatever length necessary. The earth dug from the swale is piled on the downhill side to make a raised mound or berm.

托比 · 海门威在他的《盖亚的花园》一书中描述了一个沼泽地: 一条沿着地形轮廓平坦的浅沟。 它可以是任何东西,从一英尺到几英尺,一英尺或更深,任何长度都可以。 从沼泽地挖出的土堆积在下坡的一侧,形成一个凸起的土丘或护堤。

During the rain event, once the soil can’t absorb the falling rain any longer, overland flow occurs. Whatever water the soil can’t absorb flows downhill as runoff. As that surface water and rainwater runs downhill it is intercepted by the swale, spreads out along its length, and slowly percolates into the soil.

在降雨过程中,一旦土壤不能再吸收降雨,就会发生坡面流。 任何土壤不能吸收的水都会作为径流流向下方。 由于地表水和雨水沿坡向下流动,它被沼泽拦截下来,沿着沼泽向外扩散,然后慢慢渗入土壤。

This underground water then seeps downslope, forming a lens of moisture. The stored water creates an underground reservoir that aids plant growth for tens of feet below the swale. Most importantly, swales are tree-growing systems; by planting trees or other crops on the mound (berm) on the downhill side of the swale (or just below it) they’ll be able to take advantage of this soil moisture during dry periods.

然后这些地下水沿着斜坡渗出,形成水分透镜。 储存的水形成了一个地下水库,帮助沼泽地下数十英尺的植物生长。 最重要的是,洼地是树木生长系统; 通过在洼地下坡(或正好低于洼地)的土墩(护堤)上种植树木或其他作物,他们将能够在干旱时期利用这种土壤湿度。

We primarily use swales for this purpose, but swales also prevent gullies from forming by intercepting rainwater, slowing it, spreading it, essentially decreasing its erosive potential. Swales also trap organic matter and the ditch becomes a rich, thick layer of humus which holds a considerable volume of water. Moreover, once you have it dug out, you can bring that organic matter in, fill it out with wood chips, dead branches….

我们主要是为了这个目的而使用洼地,但是洼地也通过拦截雨水来阻止沟渠的形成,减缓它的形成,扩散它,从根本上减少它的侵蚀潜力。 斯韦尔斯也困住了有机物,沟渠变成了一个富饶的、厚厚的腐殖质层,其中含有大量的水。 而且,一旦你把它挖出来,你可以把那些有机物带进来,用木屑、枯枝... ..。

Now I know that, after hearing about swales, you’ll be eager to implement them on your land, but would they work on your property? Swales are the most widely used and abused permaculture water-management technique. There are many factors that influence whether or not you swale your property, depending on your slope, soils, hydrology, type of management, ecosystem’s condition and resource base.

现在我知道了,在听说了斯瓦尔斯之后,你会渴望在你的土地上实施它们,但是它们在你的土地上会起作用吗? 洼地是使用最广泛和被滥用的永久性水资源管理技术。 有许多因素影响你是否在你的场地上建洼地swale,取决于你的坡度,土壤,水文,管理类型,生态系统的条件和资源基础。

Generally, swales are most appropriate for slopes of 5% or less. The size of watershed, the climate, the soil type, and the land use determine how much water flows off the land and into swales. Small watersheds, sandy soil, and forested areas won’t produce much runoff. Conversely, large watersheds, and soils with clay and loam, shed more water. The location’s climate also plays a part, because some areas are more likely to experience intense storms with more runoff.

一般来说,洼地最适合5% 或更少的斜坡。 分水岭的大小、气候、土壤类型和土地利用决定了有多少水流出土地进入洼地。 小流域,沙质土壤和森林地区不会产生大量的径流。 相反,大的流域和土壤中含有粘土和壤土,流出更多的水。 该地区的气候也起到了一定作用,因为一些地区更有可能经历强烈的风暴与更多的径流。

Here is a nice infographic from Ben Falk I found online, which explains whether or not you should swale.

下面是我在网上找到的 Ben Falk 的一个很好的信息图表,它解释了你是否应该采用洼地swale。

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Storing Water on the Surface 在地表储存水

Okay, once you’re done with storing water in the soil, and developing that cheap water storage in the soil, let’s move to storing water on the surface. Here we’ll be developing water systems that will store, harvest and reticulate surface water.

好的,一旦你完成了在土壤中储存水,和在土壤中开发便宜的储水系统,让我们开始在土壤表面储存水。 在这里,我们将开发储存、收获和网状地表水的水系统。

Water Storage (options)

贮水(选择)

On the surface, you can store water in the ponds/dams and in the water tanks…

在水面上,你可以把水储存在池塘 / 水坝和水箱里..。

If you need to store anything less than around 100 000 liters of water or just need drinking water, then a water-storage tank is potentially a cheaper and better option. Moreover, your site terrain might indicate that a pond construction would be too expensive so, yet again, a tank is a better option.

如果你需要储存任何少于10万公升的水,或者只是需要饮用水,那么储水箱可能是一个更便宜和更好的选择。 此外,您的场地地形可能表明,池塘建设将太昂贵,所以,再次,水箱是一个更好的选择。

You can construct water tanks from various materials and, if you position them somewhere on the top of your property, at highest practical point, you’ll have a source of effective gravity storage in conjunction with, for example, a lower level pond, stream or groundwater.

你可以用各种各样的材料建造水箱,如果你把它们放在你房子顶部的某个地方,在实用的最高点,你就会有一个有效的重力储存的来源,比如,一个低水平的池塘,小溪或者地下水。

The cheapest way of storing large volumes of water (more than 100 000 liters) is in a water-storage dam or pond. In a changing climate, water in a pond is an enormous asset to have, you can use it for many different purposes at once - for aquaculture, irrigation, stock and domestic storage, wildlife habitat, recreation and more…

储存大量水(超过10万公升)最便宜的方法是在蓄水坝或池塘里。 在气候变化的情况下,池塘中的水是一笔巨大的资产,你可以同时用于许多不同的目的——水产养殖、灌溉、畜牧和家庭储存、野生动物栖息地、娱乐和更多... ..。

Generally speaking, there are two type of ponds/dams - an embankment pond and an excavated pond. An embankment, as the name suggests, is made by building an embankment or dam across a stream or watercourse where the stream valley is depressed enough to permit storing reasonable amounts of water.

一般来说,池塘 / 水坝有两种类型: 筑堤池塘和挖掘池塘。 堤坝,顾名思义,就是在河谷足够凹陷的地方建造一个堤坝或水坝,以便储存合理数量的水。

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An excavated pond is made by digging a pit or dugout in a nearly level area. Because the water capacity is obtained almost entirely by digging, excavated ponds are used where only a small supply of water is needed. Some ponds are built in gently to moderately sloping areas and the capacity is obtained both by excavating and by building a dam.

挖掘池塘是通过挖掘一个基坑或在近水平面地区的休息区。 由于水量几乎完全是通过挖掘获得的,所以挖掘的池塘只需要少量的水。 有些池塘建在缓坡或中等坡度的地区,通过挖掘和筑坝来获得能力。

Now, what type of a pond you’ll be able to construct and, most importantly, where, depends on your site’s terrain. Different pond types and locations have different storage ratios (the volume of excavation versus the volume of storage) and this is the most important factor in determining how viable a potential site will be. When constructing a pond, what you want to ensure is to make a minimal investment in both time and earthworks for a maximal amount of storage.

现在,你可以建造什么类型的池塘,最重要的是,在哪里,取决于你的场地的地形。 不同的池塘类型和位置有不同的贮存比率(挖掘量与贮存量的比率) ,这是决定一个潜在地点是否可行的最重要因素。 当建造一个池塘时,你要确保的是在时间和土方两方面都做出最小的投资,以获得最大的存储量。

The type and dimensions of the pond will also depend upon the climate and the amount of average evaporation losses. In semi-arid and arid zones the amount of evaporation will be quite significant in comparison with cooler climates. Ponds in the hotter zones need to be deep in order to overcome annual evaporation losses…

池塘的类型和大小也将取决于气候和平均蒸发损失量。 在半干旱和干旱地区,与较凉的气候相比,蒸发量相当大。 在较热地区的池塘需要很深,以克服年度蒸发损失..。

With this in mind, let’s go through different pond types from the most economical and easiest to dig to the more expensive ones that require more extensive earthworks. In so doing, the first rule of working with water is to keep it in its place of highest potential on the landscape, up high if it can be economically placed there. So, we’ll start from the locations up the hill and go downhill.

考虑到这一点,让我们来看看不同的池塘类型,从最经济、最容易挖掘的到需要更多土方工程的更昂贵的。 在这样做的过程中,水处理的第一条规则就是保持水在景观中最有潜力的地方,如果经济地安置在那里的话,应该高一些。 所以,我们从山上的位置开始,然后下山。

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These are probably the most common of all dams and one of the easiest storage options. Since they are constructed by building an embankment in a gully or in a drainage depression, they are also the most economic option. The earthworks required come down to building a dam wall that needs to be capable of keeping the water in a gully/valley behind it.

这些大坝可能是所有大坝中最常见的,也是最容易存储的选择之一。 由于它们是通过在沟渠或排水洼地建造堤坝而建造的,因此它们也是最经济的选择。 需要的土方工程是建造一堵坝墙,这堵坝墙需要能够将水保持在它后面的沟渠 / 山谷中。

The right way to pinpoint the best pond location in the gully/valley would again be by using keyline design principles. In this context, this means first identifying the major keypoint of the slope (where the gully/valley slope section changes from a concave to convex profile), once you know where the keypoint is located, the contour line on the landscape that goes through the keypoint is the keyline.

正确的方式,以确定最佳的池塘位置在沟壑 / 山谷将再次使用Keyline设计原则。 在这种情况下,这意味着首先确定坡面的主要关键点(在这里,沟壑 / 山谷的坡面剖面从凹面变成凸面剖面) ,一旦你知道关键点在哪里,贯穿关键点的景观轮廓线就是集水线keyline。

This keyline is the highest contour in the gully/valley that can efficiently hold water, and usually the highest overall practical point in the landscape to hold water. The main use for keypoint dams/ponds is to store irrigation water. This irrigation water is then generally released though the large pipe going underneath the dam’s wall.

这个集水线Keyline是水沟 / 山谷中最高的等高线,可以有效地蓄水,通常也是景观中最高的整体实用点,可以蓄水。 重点坝 / 池塘的主要用途是储存灌溉用水。 这些灌溉用水通常是通过大坝墙下的大管道释放出来的。

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A saddle is a topographic feature - this is simply a dip or break along a level ridge crest. Since it’s on a ridge, this is the high ground and the highest available water storage in the landscape**.** This pond has a much smaller watershed than a gully/valley pond, but still can collect water runoff from both sides of the ridge crests. The primary use of a saddle dam is for wildlife and domestic stock, not so much for irrigation.

马鞍形是一种地形特征——这只是沿着一个平坦的山脊顶部的倾斜或折断。 因为它位于山脊上,所以这里是高地,也是景观中最高的可用水储存地。 这个池塘有一个比水沟 / 山谷池塘小得多的分水岭,但仍然可以从山脊两侧收集水流。 马鞍坝的主要用途是保护野生动物和家畜,而不是灌溉。

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Contour or hillside ponds are built on the side of hills and usually have a three-sided or curved bank or long, curved bank straight across the across the hillside slope (on the contour). The best way to locate these types of dam is to look at your topographic map and check for any widening of the contours along the hillside. Widening means that the terrain is flattening and this might be a good location for the pond.

等高线或山坡池塘建在山坡一侧,通常有一个三面或弯曲的堤岸或长而弯曲的堤岸横跨山坡(在等高线上)。 最好的方法来定位这些类型的水坝是看看你的地形图和检查任何扩大的等高线沿着山坡。 拓宽意味着地形变得平坦,这可能是池塘的一个好位置。

These ponds are relatively expensive to build since you have to do more digging for less water storage, but they’ll still provide you with a gravity storage. Gravity-fed water still gets priority over ponds in the flat. They are usually filled by diversion drains or graded catch drains and have the same use as a saddle dam: for wildlife and domestic stock.

这些池塘的建造成本相对较高,因为你需要更多的挖掘来减少水的储存量,但是它们仍然可以为你提供重力储存。 在公寓里,重力灌溉的水仍然优先于池塘。 它们通常由导流排水沟或分级排水沟填充,用途与马鞍坝相同: 用于野生动物和家畜。

• Ponds for the flat sites: Excavated tanks*, Ring tanks, ‘Turkey’s nest’ ponds*

•平地的池塘: 挖出的水箱、环形水箱、“土耳其巢”池塘

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Excavated tanks

挖出的水缸

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Ring tank / dam

环形水箱 / 水坝

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‘Turkey’s nest’ dam

火鸡巢大坝

All these are suitable for flat sites, and since they cannot capture runoff, they need to be filled from external sources. In excavated tanks, the excavation becomes the water storage, below the surface level. Earth removed is stockpiled nearby, unless additional dam walls are constructed for additional storage above ground level.

所有这些都适用于平地,因为它们不能收集径流,它们需要从外部来源填补。 在开挖的水箱中,开挖成为地表以下的蓄水池。 除非建造额外的坝墙以便在地面以上进行额外的储存,否则挖走的泥土将在附近堆放。

Ring tanks are constructed by using earth from inside the ring (circular or shaped to suit topography) to build the surrounding embankment. Water is generally stored above the natural surface. ‘Turkey’s nest’ dams are a variation of the ring tank where the borrow pit is located outside the embankment. Water is stored above ground level.

环形水箱是利用土从内环(圆形或形状适应地形)建造周围的堤防。 水一般储存在天然表面以上。 “土耳其巢”大坝是环形水槽的一种变体,借水坑位于堤坝外面。 水储存在地面以上。

Water Harvesting

集水

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Once your water storage is ready, you need to develop and expand upon the methods of harvesting the water. Sure, you can fill your ponds with water from a well, but before you go deep and tap into the underground aquifer, you’ll want to use the surface flows and rainfall runoff to fill your water storage.

一旦你的水储存准备就绪,你需要开发和扩展的方法收集水。 当然,你可以用井里的水灌满你的池塘,但是在你深入地下蓄水层之前,你需要利用地表水流和降雨径流来灌满你的蓄水池。

You can capture water with water-harvesting drains that will divert the runoff, stream flow or pumped water into your ponds, and subsequently tanks. Bill Mollison in his Designers Manual explains: These drains are actually trenches in the soil that aren’t dead level: they are placed in the landscape off-contour and have a slight gradient, with the goal of moving water to a specific location such as your pond.

你可以用收集雨水的排水管来收集雨水,这样可以转移径流、溪流或者把水泵入池塘,然后再把水箱里。 比尔 · 莫里森在他的《设计师》中解释说: 这些排水沟实际上是土壤中的沟渠,并不是死水平面: 它们被放置在景观不等高的地方,并且有一个轻微的坡度,目的是将水运送到一个特定的位置,比如你的池塘。

You can think of diversion drains/ditches as being giant earthen gutters placed across the landscape to harvest and move water in a manner similar to rain gutters on a house. They differ from swales in that they are built to flow after rain and, unlike swales, which are normally built on permeable soils, diversion drains work better when the base and sides are clay-lined.

你可以把引水排水沟想象成一个巨大的土制排水沟,它横跨大地,用来收割和运输水,就像房子里的排水沟一样。 它们与洼地的不同之处在于,它们是为雨后的水流而建造的,而且与通常建造在渗透性土壤上的洼地不同,如果底部和两侧铺有粘土,导流排水沟的工作效果更好。

However, swales or ditches on contour can also harvest water for you, and if they are connected to your pond as they fill up, they will overflow to your ponds. Also, if you have a series of ponds connected with swales, then the overflow of one pond enters the feeder channel/swale of the next. Having a spillway for a pond is a must and this way you’ll once more be slowing, spreading and sinking water across your landscape.

然而,等高线上的洼地或沟渠也可以为你收获水,如果他们连接到你的池塘,因为他们充满了,他们将溢出到你的池塘。 此外,如果你有一系列的池塘与洼地相连接,那么一个池塘的溢流进入下一个池塘的喂食通道 / 洼地。 有一个池塘的溢洪道是必须的,这种方式,你将再次放缓,扩散和下沉的水在您的景观。

Once installed, your roads themselves become a very important and efficient water-harvesting system. Since the roads are compacted, graded and often made of impervious materials, they have very high runoff coefficient. In certain landscapes like karts, the roads will be the only available runoff surface. The roads and the adjacent water collection drains can be then also integrated with other harvesting drains and/or swales, contributing to the overall hydration of the farm.

一旦安装,您的道路本身成为一个非常重要和有效的集水系统。 由于道路是压实的,级配的,并且通常由不透水材料制成,所以它们有很高的径流系数。 在小型赛车等景观中,道路将是唯一可用的径流表面。 道路和邻近的集水排水沟也可以与其他收获排水沟和 / 或洼地相结合,有助于农场的总体水化。

Water Distribution

食水分配

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When developing the water resources of a farm, there are two primary water channels in addition to already mentioned harvesting drains. The other type of water channel is there for irrigation purposes. These diversion drains, which are essentially the same thing as harvesting drains (placed in the landscape off-contour, have a slight gradient, moving the water) here function as irrigation channels for flow irrigation.

在开发农场的水资源时,除了上面提到的收获排水沟以外,还有两条主要的水渠。 另一种类型的水渠是用来灌溉的。 这些分流排水沟本质上与收获排水沟相同(放置在景观偏离等高线的地方,有一个微小的坡度,可以移动水流) ,在这里起到灌溉渠道的作用。

Water from a pond is directed into the drain, it fills up and overflows the top side, along its length, and cascades downhill over crops or paddocks… Basically, you can use these types of drain for your field irrigation of crops such as potatoes, corn and beans, or water your pastures.

池塘里的水被引入排水沟,水满了,沿着它的长度从顶部溢出,瀑布沿着下坡越过农作物或牧场... ... 基本上,你可以用这些类型的排水沟来灌溉农作物,比如土豆、玉米和豆子,或者给你的牧场浇水。

In his book The Bio-Integrated Farm, Shawn Jadrnicek recommends that in order to build this drain, start at the outlet - a pond, retention basin, swale, or some other area with the capacity to hold and safely release the harvested water, and move down the slope towards the desired irrigated area.

Shawn Jadrnicek 在他的《生物综合农场》一书中建议,为了建造这种排水系统,从排水口开始——池塘、蓄水池、沼泽或者其他有能力容纳和安全释放收获的水的地方,然后沿着斜坡向想要的灌溉区移动。

Another way of reticulating water is the release of the water stored in ponds and water tanks by a gravity-fed pipe network. In adopting this approach, you will use your header water tank located at the highest point in your landscape and release the stored water to irrigate your orchards and gardens through the network of irrigation pipes. You could do the same on a bigger scale by using a pond as a source of stored water and a series of the irrigation reticulation pipes connected to it.

网状水的另一种方式是通过重力供水管网释放池塘和水箱中储存的水。 在采用这种方法时,您将使用位于景观最高点的集水箱,并通过灌溉管网释放储存的水来灌溉您的果园和花园。 你可以在更大的规模上做同样的事情,用一个池塘作为蓄水源,并用一系列的灌溉网状管道与之连接。

Conclusion 总结


Managing water is crucial in designing and setting up a permaculture farm. No permaculture site has been properly planned unless it first considers how to use the available water resources.

水资源管理是设计和建立永久性农场的关键。 除非首先考虑如何利用现有水资源,否则没有任何永久性耕地得到适当规划。

The water systems you establish become a permanent feature of the new landscape and the base of permaculture land development planning. All the water lines: diversions, swales, terraces, dams/ponds, channels, form the foundation that other infrastructure components (structures, farm roads, fencing) will follow.

所建立的水系成为新景观的永久特色,成为永续性土地开发规划的基础。 所有的供水线路: 改道、洼地、梯田、水坝 / 池塘、水道,构成了其他基础设施组成部分(建筑物、农场道路、围栏)的基础。

In summary:

总而言之:

I hope this post has helped you to better understand water management on a permaculture farm. If you found it useful, please share it with anyone interested in permaculture water management.

我希望这篇文章能够帮助你更好地理解永续农场的水资源管理。 如果你发现它有用,请与任何有兴趣的人分享永久性水管理。

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