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@zhongdao 2019-07-23T03:17:38.000000Z 字数 29192 阅读 1289

创造食物森林-分步指南

食物森林 朴门学徒


Creating a Food Forest – Step by Step Guide 创造食物森林-分步指南

May 5, 2017 by papprentice

机器翻译,经过人工修改润色。

One of my earliest memories of visiting my grandparents’ farm was playing on the dry stone wall, tossing stones around and just generally fooling around.

我最早的记忆之一就是参观我祖父母的农场,在干燥的石墙上玩耍,到处扔石头,到处玩。

Then, looking down, I came across a small seedling sticking out the side of the wall, growing in nothing, with barely any soil between the stones.

然后,我往下看,看到一棵小树苗从墙边伸出来,在什么也没有中生长,石头之间几乎没有土壤。

Out of childish curiosity more than anything I decided to set it free from the heavy stones and leave it to grow on its own. That was 20 years ago…

出于孩子般的好奇心,我决定把它从沉重的石头中解放出来,让它自己生长。 那是20年前的事了。

IMG_2303
Today, that seedling is this strapping young fellow on the image left – European Ash tree.

今天,在图片左边的欧洲白蜡树上,那棵树苗就是这个魁梧的小伙子。

He has survived the droughts, heavy snows, pouring rains and sub-zero temperatures all by himself, without anyone taking care of him.

它独自度过了干旱、大雪、倾盆大雨和零下的气温,没有任何人照顾它。

As I sit under his shadow today and plan my food forest I’m curious to find out how trees flourish without human intervention.

今天,当我坐在它的树荫下计划我的食物森林时,我很好奇树木是如何在没有人类干预的情况下茁壮成长的。

How come wild apples, plums and cherries from the nearby forest do so well while the cherry tree I planted in my orchard five years ago has died miserably? To understand this I needed to return to the place where the seed of this Mountain Ash tree came from and revisit my teacher – the forest itself.

为什么附近森林里的野苹果、李子和樱桃长得那么好,而我五年前种在我果园里的樱桃树却惨死? 为了理解这一点,我需要回到白蜡树种子生长的地方,重新访问我的老师——森林本身。

Forests are our teachers 森林是我们的老师

Just by my house, some 50m away is an entrance to a forest. I visit there often, it makes me feel relaxed, I enjoy the serene sounds of nature, the falling leaves, birds and other critters. Most importantly, I go there to observe and learn.

就在我家旁边,大约50米远的地方有一个森林入口。 我经常去那里,它让我感到放松,我享受大自然的宁静之声,落叶,鸟儿和其他动物的声音。 最重要的是,我去那里观察和学习。

You see, given enough time every ecosystem ends up like a forest. This is the end point of an ecological succession; a point where the ecosystem becomes stable or self-perpetuating as a climax community and, without any major disturbances, the forest will endure indefinitely.

你看,如果给予足够的时间,每个生态系统最终都会像森林一样。 这是生态演替的终点,这里的生态系统变得稳定,或者像顶极群落一样自我延续,在没有任何重大干扰的情况下,森林将无限期地持续下去。

This is exactly what you want your own food forest to be like. To achieve a low maintenance abundance of fruit, nuts, berries and herbs you’ll want to create a forest-like system where fertility comes from various sources, where you’re greatly aided by fungi, where wildlife is your primary pest control, where soil holds water like a sponge, and where you have a high diversity of plants.

这正是你希望自己的食物森林变成的样子。 为了实现水果、坚果、浆果和草本植物的低维护量,你需要创建一个类似森林的系统,在这个系统中,肥力来自不同的来源,在真菌的极大帮助下,野生动物是主要的害虫控制手段,土壤像海绵一样保持水分,植物的多样性也很高。

You want a carefully designed and maintained ecosystem of useful plants and emulate conditions found in the forest.

你想要一个精心设计和维护的生态系统,其中包括有用的植物,以及模拟森林的条件。

However, the problem is often that you’ll find yourself starting out with a bare field, a blank canvas and the overall plan can feel a little overwhelming. Sometimes even reading books such as Edible Forest Gardens can make things harder rather than easier.

然而,问题往往是,你会发现自己从一个空白的领域开始,一个空白的画布和整体计划会感觉有点压力。有时候,甚至阅读像《可食用森林花园》(http://amzn.to/21AujgA)这样的书也会让事情变得更困难,而不是更容易。

While creating my own food forest, I broke down the plan into smaller, manageable steps. I want to make as few mistakes as possible and to be honest, I don’t have time to make them.

在创建我自己的食物森林时,我把计划分解成更小的、可管理的步骤。老实说,我没有时间去犯错误, 我想犯尽可能少的错误。

So today I’ll let you in on my process and I’ll also share additional resources that will help you go from that bare field to a fully-functioning ecosystem inspired by forests. Be sure to check them out at the end of the post.

所以今天我会让你们参与我的过程,我也会分享额外的资源,它们将帮助你们从那片空旷的土地,走向一个受到森林启发的功能完善的生态系统。 一定要在文章的末尾查看这些资源。

Ok, let’s dive in!

好了,我们开始吧!

1. What do you want from your food forest? 你想从你的食物森林里得到什么?

First you have to be clear about the ultimate goals of your project.

首先,你必须清楚项目的最终目标。

Why is this important?

为什么这很重要?

You see, with a clear goal, everything becomes easier, you know where best to place your efforts and, most importantly, what are the priorities, what to focus on and what to postpone for the time being.

你看,有了一个明确的目标,一切都变得容易了,你知道把你的努力放在哪里最好,最重要的是,什么是优先级,什么是重点,什么是暂时推迟。

You have to think are you doing this because of: 1. being more self-reliant, 2. making an income, 3. producing healthy food 4. educating others 5. having a fun project for all the family

你必须思考这样做的原因: 1. 更加自给自足。 2. 赚取收入 3. 生产健康食品 4. 教育他人。5. 为所有家庭做一个有趣的项目。

As you can see, each of these will require different considerations for your precious time and money. For example, if your goal is to create an income from your food forest, you’ll want to focus on researching which tree crops sell well locally and then think about how to grow them in the most efficient manner.

正如你所看到的,对于你宝贵的时间和金钱,每一个都需要不同的考虑。 例如,如果你的目标是从你的食物森林创造收入,你会想要专注于研究哪些树木作物在当地卖得好,然后考虑如何以最有效的方式种植它们。

On the other hand, if you just want to be more self-reliant, you’ll want to think about how to create a diverse food forest with as many fruits, nuts and herbs as possible to fulfill your needs and stop being dependent on the grocery store.

另一方面,如果你只是想更加自给自足,你会想要考虑如何创造一个多样化的食物森林,尽可能多的水果,坚果和草药来满足你的需求,并停止依赖商店。

Don’t overdo the thinking at the outset, but just be clear what you want from the beginning.

不要一开始就想太多,但是从一开始就要清楚你想要什么。

2. Explore, Sit Quietly and Observe, Analyse 探索,静坐,观察,分析

IMG_1258
Entrance to my nearby forest. My source of inspiration and many seeds & cuttings.
我附近森林的入口。 我的灵感来源,还有许多种子和插枝。

Start with taking casual walks in your local forest. When designing a food forest you want to learn from the local ecosystem and try to emulate it. This is why such observations are important, this is how you discover what plants will grow best in our area.

从在当地的森林里散步开始。 在设计食物森林时,你要向当地的生态系统学习,并试图模仿它。 这就是为什么这样的观察是重要的,这就是你如何发现什么植物在我们的地区生长得最好。

You’ll want to look around and identify the plants that are thriving. As Mark Shepard would say: identify the perennial plants, observe how they grow in relation to one another, and take a note of the species. Later on, you can use that list to find commercial productive variants of the wild plants that you can grow in your food forest.

你需要环顾四周,确认那些正在茁壮成长的植物。 正如马克 · 谢泼德所说: 鉴别多年生植物,观察它们之间是如何生长的,并记录下它们的种类。 稍后,您可以使用这个列表找到可以在您的食用林中生长的野生植物的商业生产性变种。

This step is crucial, because if you want to create an edible landscape that requires less work and maintenance, you need to grow species that are well adapted to your area, i.e. species that are volunteering to grow around your site.

这一步是至关重要的,因为如果你想创造一个可食用的景观,需要更少的工作和维护,你需要种植适合你的地区的物种,也就是那些自愿在你的地盘周围生长的物种。

If you have nature as your ally and use the natural tendencies of the native vegetation, then you’ll be doing considerably less hard work. This is one of the fundamental permaculture principles of working with nature rather than against it.

如果你把自然作为你的盟友,并利用当地植被的自然倾向,那么你就会少做很多艰苦的工作。这是永续经营的基本原则之一,即与自然合作,而不是对抗自然。

For example, when I walked in my forest I saw elderberries, hazels, hawthorns, lindens, cherries, apples, junipers, and the list goes on. So, guess what I’ll be growing in my food forest?

例如,当我走在我的森林里,我看到接骨木浆果,榛子,山楂,菩提树,樱桃,苹果,杜松等等。 那么,猜猜我会在我的食物森林里种什么?

I’d also be taking seeds from those naturalized species and using them as rootstock for my plants. But that’s a lesson in itself, so be sure to read my post on growing trees from seeds.

我也会从那些已经归化的物种那里获取种子,并用它们作为我植物的来源。 但这本身就是一个课程,所以请务必阅读我关于用种子种树的文章。
(归化种 (Naturalized Species) 指不依靠直接的人为的干预而能持续繁殖并维持种群超过 一个生命周期的外来物种,它们常常指示建立自然种群, 不一定形成入侵。)

Next, sit at the future site of your food forest, no matter if it’s 5 or 50 min, just sit there quietly. Brew yourself some coffee or tea and just be mindful of what is happening around you. Immerse yourself and study the wildlife, feel the breeze, listen to the sounds of the natural world around you. You can learn a great deal simply by sitting quietly.

接下来,坐在你未来食物森林的位置,不管是5分钟还是50分钟,只是静静地坐在那里。 给自己冲点咖啡或者茶,留心周围发生的事情。 让自己沉浸其中,研究野生动物,感受微风,倾听周围自然界的声音。 只要安静地坐着,你就能学到很多东西。

One of my best ideas, and one that saved me a lot of time, came when I just sat down and observed my site. For years, I tried to get a wild hedge under control and year after year I was cutting it, but it kept on re-sprouting. This mindless management involved a great deal of work, as I always found myself battling against the hedge’s natural inclinations.

我的一个最好的主意,也是一个节省了我很多时间的主意,就是当我坐下来观察我的场地时产生的。多年来,我试图控制住一棵野生的树篱,年复一年地修剪它,但它不断地重新发芽。这种愚蠢的管理涉及大量的工作,因为我总是发现自己与树篱的自然倾向作斗争。

It wasn’t until one day, when I was sitting quietly looking down at the hedge, that I came up with an easy solution to the problem. I asked myself a simple question: How can I let nature do the work for me? As I observed the hedge more thoughtfully, I realized that some of the species growing there were actually useful, while with others, I had even planned to grow them there anyway.

直到有一天,当我静静地坐着低头看着树篱时,我想出了一个简单的解决办法。 我问自己一个简单的问题: 我怎样才能让大自然为我做事? 当我仔细观察树篱时,我意识到那里生长的一些物种实际上是有用的,而对于其他物种,我甚至计划在那里种植它们。

If I just gave a head start to species I want there, they would eventually overgrow the ‘non-useful’ ones, and I wouldn’t need to mindlessly cut down everything each year. Sometimes we are just too much in working mode to come up with solutions that are actually a whole lot easier. Having the time to observe, think and ask the right questions helps us save money, time and unnecessary labor.

如果我只是给我想要的物种一个良好的开端,它们最终会超过那些“无用的”物种,我就不需要每年盲目地砍掉所有的植物。有时候,我们的工作模式实在是太复杂了,以至于无法想出更容易的解决方案。有时间去观察,思考和问正确的问题可以帮助我们节省金钱,时间和不必要的劳动。

These moments of mindfulness help put things into perspective and reveal a wealth of important information about the site itself.

这些正念时刻帮助我们正确地看待事物,并揭示地点本身的大量重要信息。

It’s time to put on your permaculturist explorers’ hat and take notes about your site. You’ll want to ‘read the landscape’ and note down everything you can decipher about your water situation, climate, soil, slope, aspect, wildlife…

是时候戴上你的朴门永续探索者的帽子,记录下你的场地了。 你会想要“阅读自然景观” ,并记下你所能破译的关于你的水资源状况、气候、土壤、坡度、方向、野生动物的所有信息... ..。

The landscape you see around you and its resulting ecosystems are formed from the interaction of climate, landform, soils and living things. Therefore, to better understand your site, you should analyze these elements, or parts of them, one by one…

你所看到的周围景观及其生态系统是由气候、地貌、土壤和生物的相互作用而形成的。 因此,为了更好地理解你的地点,你应该逐一分析这些元素,或者它们的一部分。

At this point, you want to be actively involved and walk the site, conduct surveys and look at different natural processes. You can use modern technology (smartphones and desktop computers) to help you understand the weather patterns, terrain shape and water movement across the land.

在这一点上,你需要积极参与,并在现场走动,进行调查和观察不同的自然过程。 你可以使用现代科技(智能手机和台式电脑)来帮助你了解天气模式、地形和水在陆地上的运动。

You also want to get your hands dirty and investigate your soil’s texture, structure and biological activity. You can also perform some lab tests on your soil and experiment with some basic tests yourself. There are many things to explore. Help yourself and download my checklist below.

你还想亲自动手调查土壤的质地、结构和生物活动。 还可以在土壤上进行一些实验室测试,并自己进行一些基本测试。 有很多事情需要去探索。 请随意下载我下面的清单(后文附有免费的地点调查清单)。

Based on the information you’ve collected, make a rudimentary hand-drawn map or use Google Earth as a base layer and annotate the printout with your notes. You can even make multiple thematic maps for each of the landscape components you’ve analyzed.

根据您收集的信息,制作一个基本的手绘地图或使用谷歌地球作为基础层,并用您的笔记对打印输出进行注释。 你甚至可以为你分析的每一个景观组成部分制作多个专题地图。

From the map, it should be visible where the site potentials lay, and what you’ll need to design for.

从地图上,它应该是可见的位置潜力所在,以及你需要设计的东西。

3. Design 设计 – Create a layout and choose the plants - 创建布局并选择植物

SevenStoryGarden
Illustration from 插图来自Gaia’s Garden by Toby Hemenway 盖亚花园作者: Toby Hemenway. Excellent reference when designing a food forest. . 在设计食物森林时极好的参考

There are four basic layouts that determine the final look of the food forest: In their book, Edible Forest Gardens, Dave Jacke and Eric Toensmeier suggest more options but I’ll round it down to the basics:

有四种基本的布局决定了食物森林的最终外观: 在 Dave Jacke 和 Eric Toensmeier 的书《可食用的森林花园》中,他们提出了更多的选择,但是我将归纳为基本的:

  1. Savanna type systems – alley cropping and silvopastoral system – examples: 热带稀树草原类型系统。巷道种植和森林覆盖系统——示例:Mark Shepard 马克 · 谢泼德/Grant Schultz 格兰特 · 舒尔茨
  2. Orchards – woodlands with regularly spaced trees – examples: 果园-有规则间隔的树木的林地 -- 例子:Permaculture Orchard 永久栽培果园, David Holmgren 大卫 · 霍姆格伦
  3. Mid – to late succession woodland – this is what we are trying to emulate – examples: 演替到中后期的森林——这正是我们试图模仿的——例子:Robert Hart 罗伯特 · 哈特, Martin Crawford 马丁 · 克劳福德
  4. Closed canopy forest – end point of a succession – these are mature forests – example: “Your local forest” 封闭的树冠森林-演替的终点-这些是成熟的森林-例如: “你的当地森林”

Which layout suits you best depends on your goals and your site’s characteristics (climate, terrain, biome, etc.). Different systems require a different design approach, management, and maintenance….

哪种布局最适合你取决于你的目标和你的地点的特点(气候、地形、生物群落等)。 不同的系统需要不同的设计方法、管理和维护..。

Savanna-type or agroforestry systems are based on a keyline design and are much better suited for commercial fruit, nut and herb production. Usually implemented on a broadacre scale, this is a layout with equidistant rows that enables efficient machine harvesting.

热带稀树草原或农林复合系统是基于一个关键线路设计,更适合商业水果,坚果和草药生产。这种布局通常在大面积范围内实现,具有等距离的行,可以实现高效的机器收割。

The woodlands we call orchards are more of a hybrid system that you can use for both commercial production and home use. The layout also has equidistant rows, but permaculture orchards are usually implemented on a relatively smaller scale.

我们称之为果园的林地更像是一种混合系统,可以用于商业生产和家庭使用。 布局也有等距的行,但永续栽培果园通常在一个相对较小的规模实施。

Mid- to late succession woodlands offer the opportunity for the most varied, interesting, complex, and productive patterns of trees shrubs and herbs. Although primarily geared towards home food production, you can implement this layout on your suburban backyard but also scale up to a farm scale.

中后期的森林演替为多样化、有趣、复杂和多产的树木、灌木和草本提供了机会。 虽然主要面向家庭食品生产,你可以在你的郊区后院实施这种布局,但也可扩大到农场规模。

Start your design with the scale of permanence in mind and plan your water, access and structures first. It’s best to begin with these essentials because they will be the most permanent elements of you food forest.

从永久性的尺度开始你的设计,并首先计划你的水源、入口和结构。 最好从这些必需品开始,因为它们将是你食物森林中最永久的元素。

This includes thinking about the most suitable places for your water tanks, irrigation lines and other water elements, as well as planning for the locations of access points, different buildings and fences.

这包括考虑你的水箱,灌溉线和其他水元素的最合适的地方,以及规划接入点的位置,不同的建筑物和栅栏。

Water planning comes first, as water is the number one priority for any permaculture system. The water systems that you develop in this stage will become permanent land features that other infrastructure components will follow.

水资源规划是第一位的,因为水是任何永续系统的首要任务。 在这个阶段开发的水系统将成为永久性的土地特征,其他基础设施的组成部分将随之而来。

Immediately after designing the water systems, consider where to put your roads and paths. Their placement will define your movement around your food forest for many years to come, so think long and hard about their potential locations. Once they’re in, it’s hard to rearrange them.

在设计了供水系统之后,立即考虑把你的道路和小径放在哪里。 它们的位置将在未来的许多年里定义你在食物森林周围的活动,所以要仔细考虑它们的潜在位置。 一旦他们确定,就很难重新安排了。

The pattern of the fencing will generally follow that of access, and you’ll be able to subdivide your food forest into different growing zones. By doing so, you’ll be able to manage and protect them separately if necessary. Finally, consider where to put different buildings, if any…

围栏的模式通常遵循进入的模式,你可以将你的食物森林细分为不同的生长区域。 通过这样做,你将能够在必要时分别管理和保护它们。 最后,考虑在哪里建造不同的建筑,如果有的话... ..。

Good infrastructure design is essential in order to minimise maintenance, maximize productivity, and provide a habitat for beneficial animals.

良好的基础设施设计对于减少维护、提高生产力和为有益动物提供栖息地至关重要。

Make a master list of plants – your desired species and others necessary to fulfil a certain purpose in your food forest. Think about ecological functions needed throughout the garden such as food production, the gathering and retention of specific nutrients, beneficial insect nectar plants, and ground cover for weed control.

制定一个植物的总清单-你想要的植物种类和其他在你的食物森林中实现某种目的所必需的植物。考虑整个花园所需要的生态功能,如食物生产、特定营养物质的收集和保留、有益的昆虫花蜜植物和控制杂草的地面覆盖。

Create a spreadsheet with each of these categories, do the research and list all the plants you want. Now, if there is a desired species that simply won’t work on your site, you can always find an ecological equivalent, i.e. an ecologically similar species that fills a similar community niche in comparable habitats.

创建一个电子表格,列出这些类别,做研究,并列出所有你想要的植物。 现在,如果有一个理想的物种根本不适合你的地点,你总是可以找到一个生态等效的,即一个生态相似的物种,在可比的栖息地填补类似的社区生态位。

For this you can use climate-analogous species. Based on the climate classification of your site, you can find almost identical climates across the globe, and then, by researching plants in those areas, find all kinds of interesting species you didn’t know you could grow.

为此,你可以使用类似气候的物种。 基于你地点的气候分类,你可以在全球范围内找到几乎相同的气候,然后,通过研究这些地区的植物,找到各种你不知道你可以种植的有趣的物种。

However, growing plant species that aren’t native to your bioregion can be working against the natural tendencies of your site. You can make things easier on yourself and only focus your attention on what’s proven to work. Here’s what I mean…

然而,生长在你的生物群落之外的植物物种不是原生的,可能会与你的地点的自然趋势背道而驰。你可以让事情变得简单,只把你的注意力放在已经证明有效的事情上。我的意思是...

Based on the inspection of your local forest in step 1, you’ll have an idea what species grow best in your area. These native and naturalized species are part of the already functioning and thriving ecosystem. All you need to do now is imitate that ecosystem on your site but use the more productive variants of these species.

根据步骤1中对当地森林的检查,你就会知道什么物种在你所在的地区生长得最好。 这些本地和归化的物种是已经发挥作用和繁荣的生态系统的一部分。 现在你需要做的就是模仿你地点上的生态系统,但是使用这些物种中更有生产力的变种。

Be sure to include these plants in your master list!

一定要把这些植物列入你的主清单!

This is the very core of forest gardening. You want to create effective polycultures that share the resources and mutually support themselves. But how can you choose the right combination of plants? Here are just a few of the recommendations from Edible Forest Gardens.

这就是森林园艺的核心: 你想要创造有效的多元,资源共享,相互支持。 但是如何选择正确的植物组合呢? 以下是来自可食用森林花园的一些建议。

You can do your guild build based on what you know or guess about plants, their species niche, and how they interact. In this way you can also create novel plant combinations through your experiments.

你可以根据你对植物的了解或猜测、它们的物种生态位以及它们如何相互作用来建立你的公会。 通过这种方式,你也可以通过实验创造出新奇的植物组合。

You can create a random mixture. A lot of people will just select a group of interesting plants and throw them together and see what happens. However, while it is sporadically ok to do so to spice things up, if the whole garden is like this, it will probably result in failure.

你可以创建一个随机混合物。 很多人会选择一组有趣的植物,然后把它们放在一起,看看会发生什么。 然而,虽然偶尔这样做是可以的,但是如果整个花园都是这样的话,很可能会导致失败。

You can also try to emulate a habitat and use a model ecosystem as a template for design, incorporating species directly from the model habitat. This model habitat could be your local forest.

你也可以试着模仿栖息地,使用一个模型生态系统作为设计模板,直接从模型栖息地合并物种。 这个模型栖息地可以是你当地的森林。

This is, of course, the easiest way to win. Here, you’re not inventing anything new, rather you’re copying what already works in nature. All you need to do is observe how the native plants grow in relation to one another and imitate that in your food forest.

当然,这是最简单的成功方式。 在这里,你不是在发明什么新东西,而是在复制自然界中已经存在的东西。 所有你需要做的就是观察当地的植物是如何相互联系生长的,并在你的食物森林中模仿它们。

If you’re not sure where to start, download my free PDF with 5 Temperate Climate Guild examples you can copy and recreate in your food forest. 如果你不确定从哪里开始,可以下载我的免费 PDF 文件,里面有5个温带公会的例子,你可以在你的食物森林里复制

Design your patches one by one, a patch could be a row, a contour or a grouping of plants in one area. However you decide to tackle the patch design, the most important aspect is deciding on the planting distance.

一个接一个地设计你的小块地,一个小块地可以是一行,一个轮廓或一组植物在一个地区。 无论您决定如何处理小块地设计,最重要的方面是决定种植距离。

If you followed the design process and started your design by choosing the overall layout, you should already have an idea on the distances between the patches. Now let’s look at how to space the plants within the patch itself.

如果您遵循设计过程,并通过选择整体布局开始您的设计,那么您应该已经对小块地之间的距离有了一个概念。 现在,让我们来看看如何在这片土地上种植植物。

The easiest way to determine this spacing is by using the ‘crown touching rule’ and placing the individual trees a crown’s diameter apart. For this, you’ll have to find the information on the size of the individual mature trees’ crowns and use that as your guide.

最简单的方法来确定这种间距是使用“冠触规则” ,并放置个别树木的冠的直径之间的距离。 为此,你必须找到关于每棵成年树冠大小的信息,并以此作为你的指南。

Usually, the biggest mistake people make is overly-dense spacing where tree crowns are interlocking. This is OK when you’re planting a screen or hedge, but otherwise this will put stress on the plants and limit their growth.

通常,人们犯的最大的错误是树冠连锁的地方空间过于密集。 当你种植屏风或树篱时,这是可以的,但是否则会给植物施加压力,限制它们的生长。

In his book, Creating Forest Gardens, Martin Crawford recommends adding 30-50% more distance around each woody plant if you want more sunlight for understory plants. Also, you want to plant wider than ‘crown touching’ distance when soil conditions are limiting, in order to reduce competition between plants for limited resources.

马丁·克劳福德在他的《创造森林花园》一书中建议,如果你想让林下植物获得更多的阳光,可以在每棵木本植物周围增加30-50%的距离。此外,在土壤条件有限的情况下,为了减少植物之间对有限资源的竞争,你还需要种植比树冠接触距离更宽的植物。

4. Prepare the site 准备好地点(覆盖,水利,道路,围篱,改良土壤)

Improving the soil on my site one patch at a time. Hugel swale with red clover/perennial rye cover crops.Improving the soil on my site one patch at a time. Hugel swale seeded with mixture of red clover/perennial rye cover crop.

一次改善在我的地点上一个小块的土壤。 红三叶 / 多年生黑麦覆盖作物混播小麦试验

If you’re not starting from scratch with a bare field, the chances are there is something already growing there and you’ll need to adapt your site accordingly. This means clearing unwanted vegetation and leaving whatever you find useful. You can use any available biomass for mulch, compost, wood chips, firewood, mushroom inoculation….

如果你不是在一个光秃秃的领域从零开始,很可能是已经有东西在那里生长,你需要相应地调整你的地点。 这意味着清除不需要的植物,留下任何你认为有用的东西。 你可以使用任何可用的生物质覆盖物,堆肥,木屑,木柴,蘑菇接种..。

For example, I will be leaving some naturalised plums and using a wood chipper to create some mulch from the trees and branches I don’t need, plus I’ll be using the wood for my hugel beds.

例如,我将留下一些归化的李子,并使用一个木材削片机从我不需要的树木和树枝上创建一些覆盖物,此外,我将使用木材作为我的hugel床。

After you cleared the vegetation, you can start the earthworks for optimizing water retention on your site. This involves shaping the earth in a way that promotes water infiltration, distribution and storage.

清除植被后,您可以开始土方工程,优化水在您的地点上的保持性。 这包括塑造土地的方式,促进水的渗透,分配和储存。

Effectively, what you want is to do first is to slow, spread, and sink the water as it falls from the sky into the soil. The soil is the cheapest place to store water, and it’s the largest storage resource available on most sites. To do this, you can use two very famous techniques: keyline plowing/subsoiling and swales on the contour.

实际上,你首先要做的是减缓、扩散并使水从天上落到土壤中。土壤是最便宜的储存水的地方,也是大多数地方可用的最大的储存资源。 要做到这一点,你可以使用两个非常著名的技术: 集水线耕作 / 深松土和在地形上的洼地。

Following this, you want to have a way to capture as much water as reasonably possible and store it for dry periods. You can do this by digging ponds that will store the water and diversion drains that will collect and distribute that water when necessary across the site.

接下来,你需要找到一种方法,尽可能合理地捕获更多的水,并将其储存起来以备干旱时期使用。 你可以通过挖掘池塘来储存水,还有分流排水道,这些水道会在必要时在整个场地收集和分配这些水

Whether you’re going to use one or both of these strategies depends on your site conditions: climate, terrain, soil, your context…I think one question on everybody’s mind is whether or not to swale it. For assistance, I would encourage you to look at this cheat sheet by Ben Falk if you’re in two minds about doing swales on your site.

你是否会使用其中一种或两种策略取决于你的场地条件: 气候,地形,土壤,你的环境... 我认为每个人心中的一个问题是是否沼泽化。 如果需要帮助,我鼓励你看看 Ben Falk 的这张小抄,如果你对在你的地点上做 swales 有两个想法的话。

Following the earthworks, begin with the most difficult, important or permanent elements of the food forest.

继土方工程之后,从食物森林中最困难、重要或永续的食物森林元素开始。

Start by putting down pathways throughout your site, they are important as they define your different growing zones and protect them from the compaction. You want to minimize compaction in the areas you’ll be planting soon after and having clearly defined pathways keeps you on track (pun intended).

首先在你的地盘上铺设路径,它们很重要,因为它们定义了你不同的生长区域,并保护它们免受压实。 你希望尽量减少你将要种植的地区的密实度,并且有清晰定义的路径使你保持在正确的轨道上(双关语)。

A well built pathway can also act as a hard surface runoff and collect the water that you can then connect with your other water elements you built in the previous step. Integrate rather than segregate!

一个建造良好的小路也可以作为一个硬的地表径流和收集水,然后你可以连接你在上一个步骤建立的其他水元素,整合而不是隔离!

Fencing the site is the next important thing. I can’t recommend building a main perimeter fence and enclosing your whole site strongly enough. Importantly, there are security issues and protecting from theft or trespassing and, moreover, I hear a lot of people regretting not doing this type of a fence first in order to ensure that their trees get protection from wildlife.

保护场地是下一个重要的事情。我建议建立一个主要的周边围栏,足够包围你的整个场地。重要的是,有安全问题,防止盗窃或非法侵入,而且,我听说很多人后悔没有先建这种围篱,以确保他们的树木免受野生动物的伤害。

You don’t want those deer, coyotes, kangaroos, sheep or rabbits nibbling on your seedlings.

你不希望那些鹿、郊狼、袋鼠、绵羊或者兔子啃食你的幼苗。

Finally, if necessary, put down irrigation and install water tanks – you simply can’t overdo it when it comes to making sure there is enough water during the months of drought.

最后,如果有必要,放下灌溉设备,安装水箱。在干旱的几个月里,要确保有足够的水,你怎么做都不为过。

It will come as a surprise to many, but improving the soil first rather that planting straight away saves time. This is because waiting for a year and simply conditioning the soil during that time and then planting in year two yields better results than planting immediately.

这可能会让很多人感到惊讶,但是先改良土壤,而不是直接种植,这样可以节省时间。 这是因为等待一年,在这段时间内简单地调节土壤,然后在第二年种植比立即种植产生更好的结果。

For improving the soil in this transitional period prior to planting, you can add soil amendments such as compost, compost tea, fertilizers or use cover crops, all with the goal of improving the fertility of the soil so that your plants get a decent head start. However, there is a caveat to this soil building…

在种植前的过渡时期,为了改善土壤,你可以添加土壤改良剂,如堆肥、堆肥茶、肥料或覆盖作物,所有这些都是为了提高土壤的肥力,让你的植物有一个良好的开端。 然而对于土壤改善有一个警告..。

Ideally, food forest soils contain a fungal presence ten times higher than that of bacteria. So you should aim to recreate those conditions.

理想情况下,食物森林土壤中的真菌含量是细菌含量的十倍。 因此,你应该致力于重建那些条件。

In the beginning, you’ll be probably starting out from a bare field and you want to continually nudge your soil towards fungi domination. You can do this by inoculating the soil with fungi or cover cropping with green manure crops – Michael from the Holistic Orchard recommends red or crimson clover in preference as these two nitrogen-fixing legumes have a stronger affinity for mycorrhizal fungi. Finally, you want to spread woody mulch everywhere to feed the fungi in the soil.

刚开始的时候,你可能是从一块裸露的土地开始,你想不断地把你的土壤推向真菌的统治地带。 你可以通过在土壤中接种真菌或覆盖种植绿肥作物来做到这一点——来自整体果园的迈克尔推荐优先种植红色或深红色三叶草,因为这两种固氮豆类对菌根真菌有更强的亲和力。 最后,你需要将木本覆盖物铺得到处都是,以喂养土壤中的真菌。

For more info about improving the soil in your food forest read my Definitive Guide to Building Deep Rich Soils by Imitating Nature.

想了解更多关于改良食用林土壤的信息,请阅读我的《模仿自然建造深层肥沃土壤的权威指南》。

5. Source the plants and start planting 寻找植物并开始种植

Here I'm taking some Juniperus communis cuttings in my local forest. Sourcing plants the cheap way.Here I’m taking some Juniperus communis cuttings in my local forest. I’m sourcing plants the cheap way. 这是我在当地森林里采集的一些刺柏。 我正在用廉价的方式采购植物

Now that all the preparation work is complete, you can start planting. You basically have two options depending on the budget: grow your own trees (and shrubs of course) or acquire young ones.

现在所有的准备工作都完成了,你可以开始种植了。 根据预算的不同,你基本上有两个选择: 自己种树(当然还有灌木)或者培育幼树。

If you’re on a tight budget, I would suggest growing most of your trees yourself. Actually, regardless of your budget, you shouldn’t stray from learning how to grow your own trees. This is one of the most important skills you can have as a permaculturist, and the chances are that sometimes the type of the trees you’ll need won’t be even available to buy.

如果你手头紧,我建议你自己种大部分树。事实上,无论你的预算如何,你都不应该偏离学习如何种植自己的树木。这是作为一个永续种植者你所能掌握的最重要的技能之一,而且很有可能你所需要的树木类型有时甚至买不到。

Growing your own trees is like printing your own money. It’s actually quite simple and you don’t even need that much space. You can read all about it in my post on ‘How to set up a Small Permaculture Nursery and Grow 1000s of Trees by yourself’ and start your nursery today.

种自己的树就像印自己的钱一样。 它实际上非常简单,你甚至不需要那么大的空间。 你可以在我的文章《如何建立一个小型的永续栽培苗圃和自己种植1000棵树》中读到这些,今天就开始你的苗圃吧。

Another option is to buy young trees from nurseries. However, the trees will be more expensive, already grafted and probably already one or two years old. If you have the budget and don’t have time to grow your own trees or to wait, this is the way to get an instant orchard without the hassle of setting up a nursery.

另一个选择是从苗圃购买幼树。 然而,树木将更加昂贵,已经嫁接,可能已经一年或两年。 如果你有预算,没有时间自己种树或等待,这是一个方法得到一个即时的果园,没有建立苗圃的麻烦。

Planting a food forest can take place in stages or all at once. However, being honest, you’re unlikely to do it all in one go. More realistically, you’ll be planting your food forest in stages and over the course of several years. As long as you already know the outline of your rows or patches, you’ll know where to plant. After this, it’s only a matter of slowly filling the space with plants.

种植食物森林可以分阶段进行,也可以同时进行。 然而,说实话,你不可能一次做完所有的事情。 更现实地说,你将在几年的时间里分阶段种植你的食物森林。 只要你已经知道你的路径或小块地的轮廓,你就会知道在哪里种植。 在这之后,只需要慢慢地用植物填充空间。

The establishment in stages normally involves planting hedges and/or canopy trees in the first year or two, then later shrubs and a ground cover layer. Here is a recommendation from Martin Crawford’s Creating a Forest Garden book:

分期种植通常包括在第一年或第二年种植树篱和 / 或树冠树木,然后再种植灌木和地被层。 以下是马丁 · 克劳福德的《创造一个森林花园》一书中的建议:

Windbreak/hedges and edges>>Canopy layer including N fixers>>Shrub layer including N fixers>>Perennial/ground cover layer>>annuals, biennial and climbers.

防护林/树篱及边缘>>林冠层包括N个固定点>>灌木层包括N个固定点>>多年生/地被层>>一年生、二年生和攀缘植物。

Depending on your layout, you can also add annual veggie production to this. At least in the beginning, there will be a lot of light and space available for you to use to grow your beyond organic vegetables.

根据你的布局,你也可以每年增加蔬菜产品。 至少在开始的时候,你会有很多光线和空间可以用来种植超越有机品质的蔬菜。

I won’t go into detail on how you should be planting, for step-by-step details watch the Permaculture Orchard documentary where Stephan explains how to plant a tree in great details.

我不会详细说明你应该如何种植,因为一步一步的细节,请看永久果园的纪录片,其中斯蒂芬详细地解释了如何种植一棵树。

In short, just make sure you dig a large enough planting hole, spread the roots and sprinkle in mycorrhizal inoculant or dip the roots in a mycorrhizal root dip if required, then refill the hole with the soil you took out.

简而言之,只要确保你挖了一个足够大的种植洞,铺开根部,撒上菌根接种剂,或者在需要的时候把根部浸在菌根里,然后用你挖出来的土重新填满洞。

In almost every instance, you should use sheet mulch after planting to control the weeds. Unless the soil is very poor, do not add extra materials to it. Most importantly, don’t forget to mulch with the right type of material, since you’ll be growing woody perennials you’ll have to feed the soil biology (fungi) with woody mulch.

几乎在每一种情况下,你都应该在种植后用覆盖物来控制杂草。除非土壤非常贫瘠,否则不要在上面添加额外的材料。最重要的是,不要忘记用合适的材料覆盖,因为你要种植木质多年生植物,你必须用木质覆盖物喂养土壤生物(真菌)。

Conclusion and next steps 总结及下一步工作

Creating a food forest is a multi-stage process and you don’t have to go through all the steps outlined above in the exact order. The idea behind this post is to give you a framework for planning and planting your first trees. Aftercare and maintenance will be a subject for another post.

创建一个食物森林是一个多阶段的过程,你不必按照上面的确切顺序完成所有的步骤。 这篇文章背后的想法是给你一个规划和种植你的第一棵树的框架。 后护理和维护将是另一个文章主题。

So these were the steps I follow when creating my food forest. I’ve been growing my food forest for a couple of years now but honestly, it’s an ongoing and never-ending project as I always like to expand to more land, plant more plants and experiment with different plant combination. With every new patch of land, I follow these exact steps.

这些就是我创建食物森林的步骤。 我种植食物森林已经有几年了,但说实话,这是一个永无止境的项目,因为我总是喜欢扩张到更多的土地,种植更多的植物,尝试不同的植物组合。 对于每一块新的土地,我都严格遵循以下步骤。

I want you to do the same thing and start creating that low maintenance food abundance today, so I’m giving several bonus resources to help.

我希望你也做同样的事情,从今天开始创造低维护性的丰富食物,所以我提供了一些额外的资源来帮助你。

You can download all that goodness by signing up here.

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