@zhongdao 2019-10-11T02:18:39.000000Z 字数 14245 阅读 2496

# 食物森林建立学习笔记

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# 前言

https://www.zybuluo.com/zhongdao/note/1616755

# 1. 基础

## 7层

• Canopy —> Tall Tree
• Sub-canopy —> Low Tree
• Shrub Layer
• Herbaceous (or Perennial) Layer
• Groundcover Layer
• Vine Layer
• Root Layer

## guild 功能

• Food
• Nitrogen fixing 固氮植物
• Nutrient accumulators 养分蓄积
• Insectary plant 吸引益虫类植物
• Aromatic plants 芳香植物， 抗菌防虫
• Ground cover 地被植物、保护土壤

## guild内植物关系

•公会内的每一株植物都利用了特定的3D空间，每一株植物都扮演着特定的角色——>每一株植物都扮演着特定的角色(以特定的方式谋生)
•我们有许多不同的层次供植物使用，它们可以完成功能，因此每一种植物的生活方式略有不同，从而最大限度地减少直接竞争
•当然，当两种或两种以上的植物紧密地生活在一起，使用相同的资源时，总会存在一定程度的竞争，但只要土壤、光线和水等基本条件合适，这些植物就能愉快地共存
•公会设计的目的是通过植物共享资源(光、水、土壤)和相互支持，使这些关系成为可能，这就是我们在这里的原因!

# 2. 设计策略

-决定你如何选择你的植物和你如何设计你的公会。

-根据你的设计策略，也就是将你的物种选择范围缩小到最适合你的目的，你将选择你的植物种类，并创建一个植物主目录。

-将所选物种有效地分组，这些分组是多样化的、自我的

## 模仿本地自然

1.我们分析了当地的生态系统，研究了植被层、密度、模式和多样性。
2.在物种选择过程中，我们直接利用该栖息地的物种来模拟该模式栖息地。或者，简单地说，我们找到它们的商业亲戚，提供有益的功能和用途。在这里，我们创建一个植物主列表。
3.我们通过创建模型栖息地的多元文化斑块的结构和功能模拟，在群落或斑块设计阶段模拟模型社区。

## 经典Guild建立

1.在这里，您首先必须很好地了解您的场地条件，并进行场地评估(气候、土壤、微气候)。这将给你一个指导方针，你可以种植哪些植物。
2.根据第一步的标准，你进行公会的物种选择，即列出你希望你的公会执行的所有生态功能，并选择执行这些功能的物种(例如，生育植物、授粉支持植物、地被植物等)。你想要一个物种的主目录。
3.一旦你有了你的植物主目录，你就会考虑这些植物是如何在物理上结合在一起的，这样它们就不会在形状上互相竞争，也就是说你决定哪些植物在哪个层。

# 3. 选择植物

## 2种方法的简介

1.不重复轮子的方法:模仿自然，使用我们的原生生态系统作为模型，并基于选择最可能成功的植物。

2.根据它们的功能和结构种植各种各样的植物，创造新的植物组合，看看它们的表现如何。

## 具体选择步骤

### 步骤1 根据场地条件选择

Your site conditions: climate, microclimate and soil,
give you the first important filter when considering which plants to choose.
The plant species have a certain preference (full sun, acid soil, wet soil…), and can tolerate different conditions (drought, waterlogging, late frosts) so this is your first lens through which you must make your plant species selection. Your plants will almost certainly wither and die or grow poorly if you fail to obey “the rules of the game”.

### 步骤2 其他事项

After you choose the plant species, there are some additional factors to consider when choosing plant varieties for your site. This is your second lens through which you make your plant selection.

A.选择水果和坚果品种时的其他注意事项:

•当地

Locally adapted varieties are the best, as they will more likely be bred for a specific feature (e.g. local disease resistance) and because of this, they’ll generally be easier to grow. Choosing climate analogues, i.e. species that grow in similar climates but are not from your geographic area could work well as long as you obey step number 1.

•成熟的季节

Different
varieties ripen at different times and some varieties ripen over a longer
period than others. You’ll have to decide whether you’re going to plant an
early or late variety. This depends on when you want your crops to be ready for harvest.

•传粉者

Most commonly, grown fruits need pollen from a tree of another variety to pollinate them, as it is not possible to grow a single variety of these fruits on their own. Think about this when planning other tree-centered guilds in your food forest.

•树的大小和形状

This is influenced by how much space your guild can occupy and where it’s located within the food forest.

•味道

You want to grow things that you’re actually going to love to eat! B. Additional factors to consider when choosing other perennials and annuals:

•功能

-注意:这是花园中最理想的实验区域，不仅因为植物的寿命比树木和灌木短，还因为人们对它们知之甚少。

### 步骤3 利用植物列表库选择

Make the selection of the desirable plant species using the plant list and online plant databases

A. Use the plant list to select desirable plant species - link to the spreadsheet. - Where applicable plants have a noted hardiness zone and tolerance/preference. - The plant list is divided into layers, so you’ll find individual sheets for canopy, sub- canopy, shrub, climbers, herbaceous and ground cover layers.

- You can conduct your search based on functions you need them to fulfil; you’ll find that each plant has a plus sign under a specific function it performs.

-你可以根据需要履行的职能进行查册;你会发现每个植物在它执行的特定功能下都有一个加号。

B. Find out more details about the selected plants on the Plants for a Future database. - If you want a more thorough description of each of plant listed, use this database to find out more.

- Here, you’ll also find the width and the height of the selected plants.

Alternative databases you can use:

-在这里，你还可以找到选择的植物的宽度和高度。

### 补充说明

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_companion_plants#Fruit

（备注：对于学名，想知道其对应中文名称，可以搜索：http://www.cfh.ac.cn/Spdb/spsearch.aspx?aname=

https://pfaf.org/user/Default.aspx

put in the name in English and then see what's the botanical name, translate that name into Chinese.

#### 个人目标及建议课程补充的部分

Beijing, China is in the humid continental climate and temperate deciduous forest biome. That's the exact same climate/biome as I am, and that was the focus of the course.

The plant list and recipes should be applicable to your bioregion, it's a pity that you can't make the translation. I suggest you use this database: https://pfaf.org/user/Default.aspx put in the name in English and then see what's the botanical name, translate that name into Chinese.

Also, there is still no concept as to when to plant, how to plant, and how many species.

Let me just point you to the calendar that explains when to plant: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1zrbTBXRN-_VKzuxJy4IbK_A1xyNKp89oUazOq9T34PI and a guide on how: Bare Root Planting.

How many species together, that's more of a design question, for starters I recommend experimenting 1 canopy tree, 1 shrub, 1 perennial (choose the function you need) and 1 groundcover.

# 4. Guild 设计

1.一个你想要在你的食物森林行会中种植的特定植物的列表
2.你可以在一张纸上画画，或者，你也可以使用电脑软件——我的建议是:园艺规划师。

## 第一步:设计冠层

•在树冠上画一个草图(这个圆圈应该代表一棵成熟的树的大小)•在公会的南边留出足够的空间，因为我们将会放置其他的

## 第三步:设计多年生地被植物

•目标是在一个或几个物种的漂流/斑块中种植

•设计不同的植物类型(不同的生态位)

•几乎总是包括那些耐荫的物种

•不要在离小树和灌木太近的地方种植

•想想好伴侣植物

•不要有压力stress
Plants in this layer they will grow together well as long as basics soil, light, water are supplied. Also this is a layer to experiment with, if something goes wrong you can remove, replant, start all over, as long as the main fruit tree and shrub are in the right position don’t stress about it.

•你可以把矿工植物 mineral accumulators 放在这里。

•Place nutrient accumulators near the dripline of the mature outer canopy of food-bearing plants where feeder roots are commonly located.

Alternatively you can place them closer to the tree when it’s young or below the canopy as the root system of a deep-rooted accumulator competes very little with that of a fruit tree.

• Always aim to plant in drifts/patches of one or a more species - planting few individual plants close together, leaving some space in between so they can spread

•You can also create distinct fertility patches for chop and drop mulch

I recommend putting them near plants needing herbivore protection while considering how she tolerant they have to be according to their position. 我建议把它们放在需要草食动物保护的植物附近，同时根据它们的位置考虑它们的耐受性。

Plants such as mint, oregano and lemon balm release large amounts of essential oils in the growing season and they can have anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effects. They also confuse pests with their highly aromatic smell.

NOTE: This is only one way of designing a food forest guild. The perennial layer is the one with which you can experiment, make mistakes, and adapt to your own needs and the needs of the central element. 注意:这只是设计食物森林行会的一种方式。多年生植物层是一个您可以试验、犯错并适应您自己的需要和中心元素的需要的层。

You can even say, ‘Okay, I don’t need all these plants right now’, and sow only transitional ground-covers to ensure the soil is covered with plant growth and keep the soil structure in good condition while nonetheless thinking about what to plant in this layer and allowing yourself time to plan and acquire plants.

## 第五步:设计固氮植物

•乔木层•灌木层•地面覆盖层

•正如我们在前一步中讨论的，让你的攀登者爬上这棵树是更好的选择。

# 5. 从小块到食物森林

1.直排-永久培养果园的例子

•最简单的模式——当地面平坦时使用
•树和其他层，全部压缩成一行
•重点放在确保良好的获取和维护

# 7. 实施

## 种植可选择策略

•最接近自然演替，或植物在自然环境中如何生长
•你在同一时间种植所有植物，然后让自然演替发生
•首先，需要光照的草本植物逐渐被灌木取代，然后是树木和耐荫草本植物，因为较大但生长缓慢的植物占据了主导地位

•你先种树，然后是灌木和多年生植物，一年生植物和攀援植物
•你可以年复一年地把它们分开，第一年的树，第二年的灌木和多年生植物，第三年的一年生植物和攀缘植物……
•如果你只种树，明智的做法是在树下种植多年生绿肥作物，或者养羊或其他食草动物，然后在合适的时候引入其他层次

## 从零开始的所有阶段

1.我们首先从土方工程开始(当然，如果有必要的话)来塑造土壤，这样你就可以减缓、扩散和吸收可用的降雨。

2.经过最初的土壤扰动，当土壤暴露，没有竞争植被覆盖，你可以播种一些覆盖作物(绿色或棕色肥料，多年生覆盖作物)，添加一些土壤改良剂，堆肥，并接种真菌和其他微生物的土壤。

3.然后你就可以开始种植了，就像我们讨论过的那样，可以一次种植，也可以分阶段种植:首先是树木，然后是灌木和其他多年生植物。

4.最后，在我们的木本多年生植物就位后，你应该覆盖整个地块以保持土壤的改良，保持水分，减少杂草的压力，喂养真菌，鼓励丰富的真菌环境……

### 步骤1 土方工程、栽培或地膜覆盖

#### A. 土方工程、栽培或地膜覆盖

• You can do contour, keyline or diversion swales to improve the water absorption
•您可以绘制轮廓，关键线或分流大水牛以提高吸水率
• Not every site calls for earthworks in the form of swales!
•并非每个地方都需要大洼地形式的土方工程！

• This also cultivates the soil and removes undesirable plant species, thus creating a clear patch
•这也可以培育土壤，去除不需要的植物物种，从而创造出一种

#### B. 培育CULTIVATION

• The primary goal of cultivation is to remove the sod and disadvantage unwanted plant species, giving you a clear patch of ground in which you can sow your cover crops
• On a small garden scale, ground can be hand-cultivated. On a larger scale, you can use a machine
• If you’re not in a hurry, using livestock (cattle, pigs, chicken tractor, etc.) to remove vegetation is a great option for preparing the ground to sow cover crops, and to fertilize the soil

• 种植的主要目的是去除超氧化物歧化酶(sod)和不利的有害植物种类，给你一块空地，你可以在那里播种你的覆盖作物
•在小型花园中，地面可以手工耕种。在更大的范围内，你可以使用机器
•如果你不赶时间，用牲畜(牛、猪、拖拉机等)清除植被是准备播种覆盖作物和施肥的好选择

#### C. 表层覆盖 SHEET MULCHING

• The specifics of sheet mulching vary depending on the materials you have available, but using material such as layers of cardboard or newspaper with a minimum of 4-6 inches (10-15 cm) as a weed barrier (sheet) is the key principle!
• You can use thick cardboard, newspaper, carpet, black plastic, permeable woven plastic or hemp/flax matting
• A sheet mulch needs to be down at least 6 months, and preferably 12 months, to kill off dandelions, docks, couch grass, etc.

•覆盖的具体情况取决于你所拥有的材料，但使用材料，如纸板或报纸层至少4-6英寸(10-15厘米)作为杂草屏障(床单)是关键的原则!
•您可以使用厚纸板，报纸，地毯，黑色塑料，可渗透编织塑料或麻/亚麻垫子
•地膜至少需要6个月，最好是12个月，以杀死蒲公英、码头、沙发草等。

### 步骤2. 土壤

•覆盖种植被用作杂草管理和通过建筑有机物改良土壤的场地准备技术
•覆盖作物通常生长一段时间，然后作为绿肥进行耕作，或者进行修剪或翻耕，形成覆盖层

•现在是让你的土壤接种微生物的机会了，如果土壤生物缺失，你可以把它带回来。由于这里的重点是树木，你想要接种本地真菌和微生物物种…

•添加以真菌为主的堆肥，喷洒以真菌为主的堆肥茶，并接种你在当地森林中收集的原生真菌菌种

### 步骤3. 种植

•种植时，挖一个足够大的洞很重要，这样根系在试图种植时就不会被压扁或弯曲。孔的宽度应该是根直径的两倍。16-20英寸(40-50厘米)的深度通常适用于年轻的移植。
•种植树木时，果树的接枝部分应保持在地面以上4英寸(10厘米)，否则接枝部分会在埋地后自行生根，这将会超过预期的砧木效果。
•展开根系——在回填土穴之前展开植物的根系，可以增加植物更快地挖掘出的土壤体积。它节省了植物的时间和工作，提高了存活率。
•种植前将根部浸入富含真菌的堆肥中，这样你就可以从一开始就将共生真菌接种到树/灌木的根部

### 步骤4. 覆盖

•添加ramial woodchips(仅由新生的小到直径小于7cm的中等大小的树枝制成的木片)来保持水分，抑制不需要的植物，并喂养真菌和其他微生物
•用你在当地森林中找到的树枝、树枝或砍柴剩下的部分覆盖
•你也可以用各种其他材料来覆盖，比如你修剪过的草、被切碎并掉落的草本多年生植物或稻草，但木质材料最适合你的树木

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