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如何开办一个小型永续栽培苗圃,自己种1000棵树

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以下内容仅供起步时参考,按照鸣响雪松图书中的建议,不建议嫁接等。
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How to Start a Small Permaculture Nursery and Grow 1000s of Trees by Yourself

如何开办一个小型永续栽培苗圃,自己种1000棵树

https://permacultureapprentice.com/how-to-start-a-small-permaculture-nursery-and-grow-1000s-of-trees-by-yourself/

May 10, 2015 by papprentice 24 Comments

2015年5月10日

Recently I attended a farm forestry course with David Holmgren and Darren J. Doherty, a subject I’d like to address today. To even start a farm forestry operation, or even a permaculture orchard, you’ll need to source a huge number of trees from somewhere.

最近,我与大卫 · 霍姆格伦和达伦 · j · 多尔蒂一起参加了一个农场林业课程,今天我想谈谈这个话题。 即使是开始一个农场林业运作,甚至是一个永续栽培的果园,你也需要从某个地方采集大量的树木。

I crunched a few numbers and browsed the relevant websites: it seems that small bare-root trees will cost, on average, 20k/acre for my permaculture orchard.

我计算了一些数字并浏览了相关的网站: 看起来小型裸根树木的平均成本将达到20美元或更多,这个数字很快就会增加。 我意识到,即使不包括过度播种和整地,我也需要为我的永续栽培果园每英亩支付大约2万美元。

It wasn’t until recent visit to my mentor, an experienced plant propagator, that I came upon a way to grow 100. His perspective was: why would you buy trees and spend money when you can propagate them yourself? Growing your own rootstock and grafting is a far better idea than buying, even if you need 1,000 trees.

直到最近拜访我的导师,一位经验丰富的植物繁殖者,我才发现了一种用不到100美元就能种出价值超过1000美元的树木的方法。 他的观点是: 当你可以自己繁殖树木的时候,为什么你还要买树和花钱呢? 即使你需要1000棵树,自己种植和嫁接也是一个比购买更好的主意。

I was eager to pick his brain about this, and find out how other permies such as Mark Shepard, Sepp Holzer and Stephan Sobosnwiak obtain huge numbers of trees they need for their projects. From what I could gather, it seems that the best option is to grow the trees yourself and start a small home nursery for propagation.

我急切地想知道他对这个问题的看法,同时也想知道像马克 · 谢泼德、塞普 · 霍尔泽和斯蒂芬 · 索博斯尼维亚克这样的人是如何获得他们项目所需的大量树木的。 从我能收集到的信息来看,最好的选择似乎是自己种树,并开始一个小的家庭育苗室繁殖。

With this in mind, let’s see what’s required to start a small-scale permaculture nursery and grow yourself 1000 trees:

考虑到这一点,让我们看看开始一个小规模的永续栽培苗圃和自己种植1000棵树需要什么:

  1. Learn how to propagate trees and save on capital 学习如何繁殖树木和节省资金
  2. Research what you want to plant to get an idea of what works in your area 研究一下你想种什么,以便了解什么在你所在的地区有效
  3. Source the tree material so you can start a nursery 找到树木材料,这样你就可以开始一个苗圃
  4. Set up your home nursery to start propagating trees or 设置您的家庭苗圃开始繁殖树木或
  5. Plant directly onsite to save time and ensure resilient tree growth 直接就地种植,节省时间,确保树木适应性生长

Let’s take a deeper look.

让我们更深入地了解一下。

Want to grow 1000’s of trees for a fraction of time and money other people spend? Download my free step-by-step guide and find out how! 想花别人花的时间和金钱的一小部分去种1000棵树吗? 下载我的免费一步一步的指南,找出如何

1. Learn how to propagate trees and save on capital 1. 学习如何繁殖树木和节省资金

grafters hanbookLearn the skills from the books 从书本中学习技能

You need to understand that plant propagation is the first step towards understanding the economics of growing trees on such a massive scale. Only by doing this yourself does the whole operation becomes feasible. It is an essential skill that every permie should have and it’s an easy one to acquire. Knowing how to propagate plants is like being able to do magic!

你需要明白,植物繁殖是理解如此大规模种植树木的经济学的第一步。 只有你自己这样做,整个操作才变得可行。 这是每个外婆都应该具备的基本技能,而且很容易掌握。 知道如何繁殖植物就像会变魔术一样!

Fruit tree propagation is usually carried out vegetatively (non-sexually) by grafting or budding a desired variety onto a suitable rootstock. Trees can also be propagated from seed (sexually) but these will not grow “true” to the variety of either parent from which they originate. Trees raised from seed will take longer to start bearing fruit, and the fruit they bear will usually not be of the desired quality. This is the reason why we clone the trees.

果树繁殖通常是植被繁殖(无性繁殖)通过嫁接或在适当的砧木上发芽期望的品种。 树木也可以通过种子繁殖(有性繁殖) ,但这些不会对它们起源的父母任何一方的品种生长“真实”。 从种子长大的树木开始结果需要更长的时间,而且它们结出的果实通常不具备所期望的品质。 这就是我们克隆树木的原因。

Most fruit trees are propagated to a ‘nurse’ root, the rootstock, which may be of the same variety as the graft or bud, or of a different variety or species (e.g pear on pear or quince). Some fruit trees and berries are propagated by cuttings, layers or other vegetative methods.

大多数果树繁殖到护根,砧木,可能是同一品种的嫁接或芽,或不同的品种或种类(如梨对梨或温柏)。 一些果树和浆果通过扦插、分层或其他营养繁殖方法进行繁殖。

There’s some great reading available for anyone who wants to know more, The Grafter’s Handbook is a great source, the American Horticultural Society Plant Propagation guide is also well worth a read. There are also tons of relevant YouTube videos on the subject too. I also recommend checking out Mike McGroarty’s website; he really, really knows how to propagate from cuttings without taxing your wallet. Here’s a short video with Mike showing some useful tips. You could also ask your local extension office if they have a class nearby and take a grafting workshop somewhere in your community. Or perhaps seasoned enthusiasts with the skill, or an orchardist who can explain and offer some invaluable advice.

有一些伟大的阅读任何人谁想知道更多,移植手册是一个伟大的来源,美国园艺学会植物繁殖指南也很值得一读。 也有大量相关的 YouTube 视频。 我还建议你去迈克 · 麦克格罗亚蒂的网站看看,他真的知道如何在不增加钱包负担的情况下繁殖后代。 这里有一个简短的视频与迈克显示一些有用的技巧。 你也可以问问当地的推广办公室,看他们附近是否有课程,或者在你们社区的某个地方举办一个移植讲习班。 或者也许是经验丰富的爱好者的技能,或 orchardist 谁可以解释和提供一些宝贵的意见。

2. Research what you want to plant – have an idea what works in your area 图2。 研究一下你想种什么——知道什么在你所在的地区起作用

imgDifferent rootstock – different size 不同的砧木-不同的大小

Before you plant anything on a bigger scale you should at least have an understanding of your local biome. Bear in mind Mark Shepard’s advice on what to grow: analyse what grows in your area – and put that together”.** This makes sense because nature is, of course, the best judge of what can, and can’t grow, in any environment. Just take a look around and observe native and non-native varieties of trees which have naturalised in your environment. Explore your area and identify the hardiest species, maybe you can get the cuttings or seed from them.

在你种植更大规模的植物之前,你至少应该了解你当地的生物群落。 记住马克 · 谢泼德关于种植什么的建议: “分析你所在地区种植什么——然后把它们放在一起”。 这是有道理的,因为大自然当然是判断在任何环境中什么能生长,什么不能生长的最佳标准。 只要环顾四周,观察本土和非本土品种的树木已经归化在你的环境。 探索你的地区,并确定最顽强的物种,也许你可以从他们那里得到插枝或种子。

Consult with other growers in your area and see what works locally. In his documentary,Permaculture Orchard, Stefan Sobkowiak recommends “use what is used around you and adapted to your local conditions. If people use dwarf rootstock, use that, if people use standard rootstock, use that. Don’t reinvent the wheel”.

向你所在地区的其他种植者咨询,看看什么在当地有效。 在他的纪录片《永久种植果园》中,Stefan Sobkowiak 推荐“使用你周围使用的东西,并且适应你当地的条件。 如果人们使用矮砧木,使用那,如果人们使用标准砧木,使用那。 不要重新发明轮子”。

Once you have done the groundwork, think about what you want from your trees – are you looking for juice, jam, cider or fresh fruit? Based on this information you’ll know which cultivars you wish to grow, and can make a decision regarding whether to use dwarf rootstock or standard. Today, dwarf rootstocks are used for most fruit trees, because they keep the tree small and make it fruit earlier. Seedling rootstock can also be considered, but these trees are big, slow to come into productivity, and possibly not resistant against local diseases.

一旦你完成了基础工作,想想你想从你的树上得到什么——你是在寻找果汁、果酱、苹果酒还是新鲜水果? 根据这些信息,您将知道您希望种植哪些品种,并可以决定是否使用矮化砧木或标准。 今天,矮化砧木被用于大多数果树,因为他们保持树小,使它结果较早。 幼苗砧木也可以考虑,但这些树体积大,生产速度慢,可能无法抵抗当地病害。

Think carefully about your goals. You are investing years in this project, so why not get things running smoothly from the outset? The great thing about rootstock is that you can choose rootstocks to suit your soil type. You can also experiment with sizes for your mature trees to find a combo that works well for you.

仔细考虑你的目标。 你在这个项目上投入了数年的时间,为什么不从一开始就让事情顺利进行呢? 关于根茎的伟大事情是,你可以选择根茎适合你的土壤类型。 你也可以试验一下你的成熟树木的尺寸,找到一个适合你的组合。

3. Source the tree material so you can start a nursery 图3。 找到树木材料,这样你就可以开始一个苗圃

20121013applescionwoodJust a bunch of scionwood 只是一堆接骨木

If you want to grow a tree with luscious, aromatic fruit which also grows well in your local conditions, you’ll need two things: scion wood of the desired fruit tree and the rootstock on which it will grow. Trees can be easily grown through rooting the cuttings of the desired tree or from seed. However, rooted cuttings don’t produce a strong root system and growing from seed won’t get you the desired characteristics for the fruit.

如果你想种出一棵果香浓郁的树,而且这种树在你当地的环境中也长得很好,你需要两样东西: 你想要的果树的接穗木和它将要生长的根茎。 树木可以很容易地生长通过插条所需的树木或从种子。 然而,有根的扦插不会产生强大的根系,从种子生长不会得到你想要的果实特性。

For this you can buy already grafted cultivars as bare roots or in pots. These trees are more than a year old and ready to be planted. Because they are grafted they will cost more, but the purchase of just one tree will allow you to propagate 1000s. Once planted you’ll get an endless source of cuttings of the desired variety. You can buy grafted trees at your local nursery, though if you really want a specific tree, look online for nurseries in other countries (such as this one in the UK), contact them and request shipping of the bare root tree. They are easy to ship and can be posted directly to you. It would be also good idea to order multiple varieties of trees to test how they grow and select the most suitable one for your area. Mark Shepard recommends: “buy stocks from various nurseries and see what performs the best and beats native weeds. Then grow that trees as nursery would”.

为此,你可以购买已经嫁接的品种,如裸根或盆栽品种。 这些树已经有一年多的树龄,可以种植了。 因为他们嫁接他们将花费更多,但只购买一棵树将允许你繁殖1000s。 一旦种植,你将得到一个想要的品种的插枝无穷无尽的来源。 你可以在当地的苗圃买到嫁接树木,但是如果你真的想要一棵特定的树木,可以在网上查找其他国家的苗圃(比如英国的这棵) ,联系他们并要求运送裸根树木。 它们很容易运输,可以直接发送到您的邮箱。 这也是一个好主意,订购多品种的树木,以测试他们如何生长,并选择最适合您的地区之一。 马克 · 谢泼德建议: “从各种苗圃购买股票,看看什么样的股票表现最好,能打败本地杂草。 然后像苗圃一样种植那些树木”。

If you don’t wish to buy grafted trees from nurseries you can just buy scion wood or obtain it from a variety of sources. Bear in mind what Sepp Holzer does – if he finds a nice tree somewhere, then he takes a scion from it to enrich his orchard. It’s that easy. Scion can come from a neighbour’s trees, other people’s trimmings or through exchanges with others around you. Join scion wood exchange groups in order to meet local people who have knowledge and the varieties that could work well in your area.

如果你不想从苗圃买嫁接树,你可以只买接穗木或从各种来源获得它。 记住塞普 · 霍尔泽所做的——如果他在某处找到了一棵好树,那么他就会从树上取下一棵树枝来丰富他的果园。 就这么简单。 接穗可以来自邻居的树,别人的装饰品,或通过与你周围的人交流。 加入接穗木材交换团体,以满足当地人谁有知识和品种,可以在您的地区工作得很好。

Once you have obtained the scion wood you’ll need to have the rootstock adapted to your area to ensure successful disease free growth. This can be critical for some species.

一旦你获得了接穗木,你需要有根茎适应你的地区,以确保成功的无病生长。 这对某些物种来说是至关重要的。

You can grow rootstock from seeds. Sepp Holzer and Mark Shepard’s method is to collect seeds and grow seedlings which they later graft with the desired cultivar/scionwood. If you do it this way you won’t get any dwarfing, but you’ll get sturdy full-sized trees. Without grafting you may even get an interesting new fruit variety. Seeds are easy to find and you can collect them locally, exchange with other people or purchase online. There are books available with seed indexes and lists of the places where you can get them. On top of this, seeds are really easy to ship to your address. You just have to germinate them.

你可以用种子种植根茎。 Sepp Holzer 和 Mark Shepard 的方法是收集种子并培育幼苗,然后将这些幼苗嫁接到所需的品种 / 接穗上。 如果你这样做,你不会得到任何矮化,但你会得到坚固的全尺寸的树木。 没有嫁接,你甚至可以得到一个有趣的新果实品种。 种子很容易找到,你可以在当地收集,与其他人交换或在网上购买。 有种子索引的书籍和你可以得到它们的地方的列表。 最重要的是,种子真的很容易运送到你的地址。 你只需要让它们发芽。

Another option is to buy the rootstock and clone it – take a cutting and root it. If you can’t be bothered with rooting the cuttings, then purchase a bundle of bare rootstock. It can be cheap, and, depending, on how much you buy, can cost as little as $1 a stem. Depending on your goals, you may need between 40 or 4000 trees per acre. You can order your rootstock probably from the same place where you would buy your grafted trees. Here’s again an example of a the website selling rootstock you could order from.

另一个选择是购买砧木和克隆它-采取一个切割和根它。 如果你不愿意生根插条,然后购买一捆裸根。 它可能很便宜,而且,取决于你买了多少,可能只需要花费1美元。 根据你的目标,你可能需要每英亩40或4000棵树。 你可以订购你的砧木可能从同一地方,你会买你的嫁接树。 这里再次是一个网站销售砧木你可以订购的例子。

Want to grow 1000’s of trees for a fraction of time and money other people spend? Download my free step-by-step guide and find out how! 想花别人花的时间和金钱的一小部分去种1000棵树吗? 下载我的免费一步一步的指南,找出如何

4. Setup your home nursery to start propagating trees 图4。 安装您的家庭苗圃开始繁殖树木

nursery boxGrant Schultz ‘s palletized chestnut nursery box 格兰特 · 舒尔茨的板栗托盘育苗箱

Once you have sourced the tree material, you are ready to set up your small-scale permaculture nursery. You are now ready to produce some trees with the propagation skills you have acquired. There are various types of nursery you can set up at home, ranging from a small bucket, to nursery boxes, to a standard setup in containers and nursery beds. Or you could plant directly on the site where you want the tree. You can start as small as you want.

一旦你已经采购了树木材料,你就可以开始建立你的小规模的永续栽培苗圃了。 您现在准备生产一些树与繁殖技能您已经获得。 有各种类型的托儿所,你可以设置在家里,从一个小桶,托儿所的盒子,一个标准的设置在容器和托儿所的床。 或者你可以直接种在你想种树的地方。 你可以从小事做起。

Here is the list of what other permies have used:

以下是其他性侵犯者使用过的名单:

If you want to start with seeds you could use the ‘5 gallon technique’ from Mark Shepard. He puts around 50 chestnuts or 75 hazelnuts per bucket, covers them with a couple of centimetres of soil, puts thick layer of mulch of mulch and waits for them to sprout. This can also be done in a Styrofoam box or by making seed pits in the ground. With seed pits you till the ground, mulch, and overwinter the seeds. Once the seedlings sprout you can transplant them into pots or upscale the bucket technique to a nursery box or beds.

如果你想从种子开始,你可以使用马克 · 谢泼德的“5加仑技术”。 他每桶放大约50颗栗子或75颗榛子,在上面覆盖几厘米厚的土壤,铺上一层厚厚的地膜,等待栗子发芽。 这也可以在一个聚苯乙烯泡沫箱或在地面上做种子坑。 用种子坑你耕地,覆盖和越冬的种子。 一旦幼苗发芽,你可以将它们移植到盆中或者将桶技术升级到苗圃箱或苗床上。

Basically, it’s just a wooden box. For large seeds (nuts), Mark Shepard uses a sandbox frame with hardware cloth on the bottom, fills it with soil and then puts a hardware cloth covered sandbox on top. Grant Shultz from Versaland uses a similar technique, growing his chestnuts in palletised boxes. Check out his method here.

基本上,它只是一个木盒子。 对于大种子(坚果) ,马克谢泼德使用一个沙箱框架与五金布的底部,填补了土壤,然后把五金布覆盖沙箱的顶部。 来自 Versaland 的格兰特•舒尔茨(Grant Shultz)也使用了类似的技术,他把栗子种在木板箱里。 点击这里查看他的方法。

These are fairly similar to garden beds, loose and deep with rich wood chip mulch. Seed, transplants and cuttings can go into the beds. Wood mulch can be used to create a fungal environment and make the soil alive, whereby symbiotic fungal organisms aid the growth and resilience of the trees. Beds can be planted really densely, with rows 30 centimeters apart, half an acre can contain up to 4,000 trees. Check out this interview for more info. Stephan Sobosnwiak grew all his trees in partnership with his intern, starting their nursery of 6,000 fruit trees on a 50/50 basis. The intern later left to found own orchard, which had, at the outset, 3,000 trees valued at $70,000. Trees can grow in the beds for 1-2 years, in Mark Shepard’s case most seeds are planted in a nursery bed, then transplanted a year later.

这些都是相当类似的花园床,松散和深有丰富的木屑覆盖。 种子、移植和扦插都可以进入苗床。 木材覆盖物可以用来创造一个真菌环境,使土壤有生命,这样共生的真菌有机体帮助树木的生长和恢复。 花圃可以种植得非常密集,每行间隔30厘米,半英亩可以种植多达4000棵树。 更多信息请看这个采访。 斯蒂芬 · 索博斯维亚克与他的实习生合作种植了所有的果树,开始了他们6000棵果树的苗圃,每棵果树的产量是50 / 50。 后来,这位实习生离开公司,创建了自己的果园,一开始,果园里有3000棵树,价值7万美元。 树木可以生长在床上1-2年,在马克谢泼德的情况下,大多数种子种植在苗圃床,然后移植一年后。

This is where it can get a little bit more technical. Standard nurseries are designed to produce large numbers of trees and have a high efficiency per square metre of production. This can, however, be replicated on a small scale using a setup where the beds are above ground level, preferably at hip height so it’s easy to manage and that the plants are protected from diseases from the ground below. The trees are looked after in containers, for which you’ll need a nice mix of compost and perlite, or alternatively sand mixed with dried moss. In this way you can care for huge amounts of trees in one location, up to 500 trees per bed. This setup only refers to one bed, but that module that can be replicated over and over, on any scale. Therefore, in one 6m x 3m area you can have 4 beds with up to 2,000 trees. Here are some photos of a small nursery I was recently setting up. You can also add a hothouse/greenhouse area as a protective area to germinate seedling.

这就是它可以变得更加技术化的地方。 标准苗圃设计用于生产大量的树木,每平方米的生产效率很高。 然而,这种方法可以在小范围内进行复制,在地面以上的地方设置苗床,最好是臀部高度,这样就容易管理,而且可以保护植物免受地下疾病的侵害。 树木被放在容器里照看,你需要混合堆肥和珍珠岩,或者混合干苔藓的沙子。 通过这种方式,你可以在一个地方照料大量的树木,每个树床最多可以有500棵树。 这种设置只涉及一个床,但那个模块可以在任何规模上一遍又一遍地进行复制。 因此,在一个6米 x3米的区域,你可以有4个床位,最多可以有2000棵树。 这里有一些我最近建立的一个小托儿所的照片。 您也可以添加一个温室 / 温室区域作为种子萌发的保护区。

5. Plant directly on-site to save time and ensure resilient tree growth 5. 直接就地种植,以节省时间及确保树木适应性生长

seep treeSepp Holzer’s seedling apple tree. 赛普 · 霍尔泽实生苹果树

Planting on the spot where you want your trees to grow makes sense if you’ve already bought the parent tree from which you plan to take cuttings. This is also appropriate if want to plant rootstock on-site and graft onto it later. There are many advantages of planting directly on-site rather than transplanting as there is no shock or root damage and the tree develops a great root system with a deep tap root.

如果你已经购买了你打算采取扦插的母树,那么在你希望你的树生长的地方种植是有意义的。 这也是适当的,如果想植物根茎现场和嫁接到它以后。 直接就地种植比移栽有许多优点,因为没有震动或根部损伤,而且树木的根系发达,有很深的直根。

Mark Shepard directly seeds oak, butternut, black walnut and hickories. When it comes to transplanting trees he’ll rip the ground with a subsoiler and plant the trees close together. After a year in the field, he’ll graft the very tops but leave a branch of the seedling rootstock to grow out the side. This way he knows he’ll get a decent variety (the one he grafted) while simultaneously “variety trialling” the rootstock.

马克谢泼德直接种子橡木,白胡桃,黑胡桃和山核桃。 说到移植树木,他会用深松器把地面挖开,把树木紧密地种在一起。 在田间种植一年之后,他会将顶端嫁接,但是会留下一根幼苗根茎的枝条从旁边生长出来。 这样,他知道他将得到一个体面的品种(他嫁接的) ,同时“品种试验”的砧木。

Sepp Holzer also grows trees in their intended location from the outset, in this way, they can best adapt themselves to the soil and climatic conditions. Once the trees have been growing for one to two years, they can be grafted. He only selects the best trees for grafting, so he therefore gets the optimal plants for the location. To Holzer, “This method is not only simple but economical too”

Sepp Holzer 从一开始就在预定的位置种植树木,这样,它们就能最好地适应土壤和气候条件。 一旦这些树已经生长了一到两年,就可以嫁接了。 他只选择最好的树木嫁接,因此他得到了最佳植物的位置。 对霍尔泽来说,“这种方法不仅简单,而且经济。”

In Summary 总结

As with most projects, there’s a trade-off between money and time. Basically, you have two options: more capital – bigger grafted trees; less capital – planting from seeds and smaller trees. Growing trees from seeds, cuttings and grafting is an essential skill unless you want to pay the big bucks for retail pots. The great advantage of doing it yourself is it can be done on the side and you don’t have to break the bank achieving it.

和大多数项目一样,在金钱和时间之间需要权衡。 基本上,你有两个选择: 更多的资本——更大的嫁接树; 更少的资本——从种子和更小的树种植。 通过种子、插枝和嫁接来种植树木是一项必不可少的技能,除非你愿意花大价钱购买零售花盆。 自己做这件事的最大好处是可以兼职完成,而且你不必为了完成这件事而倾家荡产。

Even if you go for 1000 trees you still are better off doing it yourself then going to a nursery. However doing it yourself only works as long as you end up with the same product as a nursery. This can be tricky in the beginning if you had no initial knowledge, but the benefits of gaining these skills are huge.

即使你想种1000棵树,你最好还是自己动手,而不是去苗圃。 然而,只有当你最终得到与托儿所相同的产品时,自己动手才会起作用。 如果你没有最初的知识,这在一开始可能会很棘手,但是获得这些技能的好处是巨大的。

In Summary:

总结:

Remember, there are no mistakes when doing it yourself, only useful feedback.

记住,当你自己做的时候没有错误,只有有用的反馈。

What do you think about growing trees yourself?

你觉得自己种树怎么样?

Let me know in the comments!

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